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Australia is world famous for its natural wonders and wide open spaces, its beaches, deserts, “the bush”, and “the Outback”.

Australia is one of the world’s most highly urbanised countries; it is well known for the attractions of its large cities such as Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, and Perth.

Understand

Geography

Australia is the sixth-largest country by land area. It is comparable in size to the 48 contiguous United States. Australia is bordered to the west by the Indian Ocean, and to the east by the South Pacific Ocean. The Tasman Sea lies to the southeast, separating it from New Zealand, while the Coral Sea lies to the northeast. Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Indonesia are Australia’s northern neighbours, separated from Australia by the Arafura Sea and the Timor Sea.

Australia is highly urbanised with most of the population heavily concentrated along the eastern and south-eastern coasts. Most of the inland areas of the country are semi-arid. The most-populous states are Victoria and New South Wales, but by far the largest in land area is Western Australia.

Australia has an area of 7,682,300km² (2,966,152 square miles) and the distances between cities and towns are easy to underestimate. The Government has published a National Public Toilet Map.

Australia has large areas that have been deforested for agricultural purposes, but many native forest areas survive in extensive national parks and other undeveloped areas. Long-term Australian concerns include salinity, pollution, loss of biodiversity, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef.

Climate

As a large island a wide variation of climates are found across Australia. It is not completely hot and sun-kissed, as stereotypes would suggest. There are regions that can be quite cool and wet. However, a good portion of the country receives more than 3,000°hr of sunshine a year. Generally, the north is hot and tropical, while the south tends to be sub-tropical and temperate. Most rainfall is around the coast, and much of the centre is arid and semi-arid. The daytime maximum temperatures in Darwin rarely drop below 30°C (86°F), even in winter, while night temperatures in winter usually hover around 15-20°C (59-68°F). Temperatures in some southern regions can drop below freezing in winter and the Snowy Mountains in the South East experiences metres of winter snow. Parts of Tasmania and Victoria have a temperature range very similar to England.

As Australia is in the southern hemisphere the winter is June-August while December-February is summer. The winter is the dry season in the tropics, and the summer is the wet. In the southern parts of the country, the seasonal temperature variation is greater. The rainfall is more evenly distributed throughout the year in the southern parts of the East Coast, while in the rest of the south beyond the Great Dividing Range, the summers are dry with the bulk of the rainfall occurring in winter.

History

Based upon scientific evidence and theory, the island of Australia was most likely first settled more than 50,000 years ago with successive waves of immigration of people from south and south-east Asia. With rising sea levels after the last Ice Age, Australia became largely isolated from the rest of the world and tribes developed a variety of cultures, based on a close spiritual relationship with the land and nature, and extended kinship. Australian people maintained a hunter-gatherer culture for thousands of years in association with a complex artistic and cultural life – including a very rich ‘story-telling’ tradition. While the modern impression of Australian people is largely built around an image of the ‘aboriginal desert people’ who have adapted to some of the harshest conditions on the planet (equivalent to the bushmen of the Kalahari), Australia provided a comfortable living for the people amongst the bountiful flora and fauna on the Australian coast – until the arrival of Europeans.

Although a lucrative Chinese market for shells and beche de mer had encouraged Indonesian fishermen to visit Northern Australia for centuries, it was unknown to Europeans until the 1600s, when Dutch traders to Asia began to ‘bump’ into the Northwestern Coast. Early Dutch impressions of this extremely harsh, dry country were unfavourable, and Australia remained for them a symbolic road sign pointing north to the much richer (and lucrative) East Indies (modern Indonesia). Deliberate exploration of the Australian coast was then largely taken over by the French and the British. Consequently place names of bays, headlands and rivers around the coastline reflect a range of Dutch, French, British, and Aboriginal languages.

In 1770, the expedition of the Endeavour under the command of Captain James Cook navigated and charted the east coast of Australia, making first landfall at Botany Bay on 29 Apr 1770. Cook continued northwards, and before leaving put ashore on Possession Island in the Torres Strait off Cape York on 22 Aug 1770. Here he formally claimed the eastern coastline he had discovered for the British Crown, naming it New South Wales. Given that Cook’s discoveries would lead to the first European settlement of Australia, he is often popularly conceived as its European discoverer, although other European nations preceded his arrival by more than 160 years.

Following the exploration period, the first British invasion and settlement in Australia was founded in 1788 at what is today Sydney, led by Captain Arthur Philip who became the first governor of the colony of New South Wales. This started a process of colonisation that almost entirely displaced the Aboriginal people who inhabited the land. This reduced the indigenous population drastically and marginalised them to the fringes of society. Originally comprising the eastern two-thirds of the island, the colony of New South Wales was later split into several separate colonies, with Tasmania (then known as Van Diemen’s Land) becoming a separate colony in 1825, followed by South Australia in 1836, New Zealand in 1841, Victoria in 1851 and Queensland in 1859. The western third of the island was not settled by Europeans until the British establised a naval base in Albany, then known as King George Sound in 1826. The Swan River Colony was formally established in 1829 at what is today Perth. The Swan River Colony was officially renamed Western Australia in 1832.

While Australia began its modern history as a British penal colony, the vast majority of people who came to Australia after 1788 were free settlers, mainly from Britain and Ireland, but also from other European countries. Convict settlements were mostly along the east coast, with scattered pockets of convict settlements in Western Australia. The state of South Australia was settled entirely by free settlers. Many Asian and Eastern European people also came to Australia in the 1850s, during the Gold Rush that started Australia’s first resource boom. Although such diverse immigration diminished greatly during the xenophobic years of the White Australia policy, Australia welcomed a successive series of immigrants from Europe, the Mediterranean and later Asia to form a highly diverse and multicultural society by the late 20th century.

The system of separate colonies federated to form the self-governing British dominion of Australia in 1901, each colony became a state of Australia, with New Zealand opting out of the federation. The new country rapidly developed its natural resources including agricultural and manufacturing industries. This development resulted in a large contribution (in relation to size of the population) to the Allied war effort in World Wars I and II. Australian troops made a valuable, and sometimes controversial, contribution to the wars in Korea, Vietnam and Iraq. Australian Diggers retain a reputation as some of the hardest fighting troops along with a great social spirit. Australia and Britain passed the Australia Act in 1986, ending the official power that the British parliament may have had to pass laws for Australia, and ended appeals by Australia to British courts. While the parliament lost that power, the Queen of Australia and her appointees retained full rights to exercise all power.

Economy

Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies and that has been remarkably resilient to the recent worldwide economic downturn.

The service industries, including tourism, education, and financial services, account for the majority of the Australian Gross Domestic Product – about 69%. Within the service sector, tourism is one of the most important industries in Australia, as it provides employment, contributes $73 billion to the economy each year and accounts for at least 11% of total exports.

The primary industries – mining and agriculture – account for most of Australia’s exports. Iron ore and coal are by far the largest exports, with wheat, beef and wool declining in importance.

Australia has a comprehensive social security system, and a minimum wage higher than the United States or the United Kingdom.

Politics

Australia has a federal system of government, with eight state and territory governments and a national government. Each of these governments has an elected parliament, with the leader of each government, known as the Premier, being the leader of the largest party represented in the lower house. The national parliament is based on the British “Westminster system”, with some elements being drawn from the American congressional system. At the federal level it consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. Each Member of the House of Representatives (colloquially known as a Member of Parliament (MP)) represents an electoral division, with more populous states having more electoral divisions and hence, more MP’s. Similar to the US Senate, each Australian state has an equal number of senators, with 12 senators being directly elected by the people in each state, and 2 senators each from the Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory. The political party (or coalition of parties) which has the most members in the House of Representatives becomes the governing party and forms the national government. Ministers are drawn from both the House of Representatives and the Senate, though by convention, the Prime Minister comes from the House of Representatives. The current Prime Minister, Malcolm Turnbull, is the current leader of the national government and the Liberal-National Coalition which holds a majority in the House of Representatives.

The Queen remains the head of state, and her representative in Australia – the Governor-General – according to conventional wisdom and lampoon – has a ceremonial and politically powerless role (while holding the ultimate power to dismiss the Prime Minister). In practice, the Prime Minister is believed to wield the most authority in government. A referendum to change Australia’s status to a republic was defeated in 1999, but the issue remains a regularly debated topic.

The two major political parties in Australia are the Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the Liberal Party, which operates in coalition with the National Party. Emerging in power is the social democratic Greens Party, which maintains an environmentalist policy platform and is effectively a partner of the ALP. It should be noted that the Liberal Party is (traditionally) a centre-right, conservative party – the term liberal refers to maintaining a free market economy.

Culture

Australia has a multicultural population practising almost every religion and lifestyle. Over one-quarter of Australians were born outside Australia, and another quarter have at least one foreign-born parent. Melbourne, Brisbane and Sydney are centers of the multicultural. All three cities are renowned for the variety and quality of global arts, intellectual endeavors, and cuisine available in their many restaurants. Sydney is a hub of art, culture, and history containing the world class architectural gem, the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Melbourne especially promotes itself as a centre for the arts, while Brisbane promotes itself through various multicultural urban villages. Adelaide must be mentioned in addition, as it is known for being a centre for festivals as well as Germanic cultural influences. Perth, also, is known for its food and wine culture, pearls, gems and precious metals as well as the international fringe arts festival. There are quite a few more that deserve mention, but this gives an idea via introduction. Smaller rural settlements generally reflect a majority Anglo-Celtic culture often with a small Aboriginal population. Virtually every large Australian city and town reflects the effect of immigration from Europe, Asia, the Middle East and the Pacific that occurred after World War II and continued into the 1970s, in the half century after the war when Australia’s population boomed from roughly 7 million to just over 20 million people.

There are approximately half a million Australians who identify as being of Aboriginal descent. Less maintain elements of traditional Aboriginal culture.

Descendants of the population of convicts mentioned in the country’s history are currently a smaller minority compared to the estimated 50% of the population originally comprised of them when Britain and others landed on the shores and inhabited the land. Long ago during the involuntary transportation and relocation from Europe and other places, it must be noted that all records were not kept nor available to others, nor have those records that existed all survived the uses of people throughout history.

The English of Australia were once known for local colour and colloquialisms but that largely has been lost to outside influence and influx. People in rural areas still tend to speak in a broader, colloquial accent and have a different manner, using many of the slang words that have become outmoded in metropolitan areas. Accents tend to be broader and slower outside of the large cities. There are overall small pronunciation differences based upon culture of origin in the cities, but these are becoming less common. Speech has become more generic. For example the word “you” colloquially, is often rolled off the tongue sharply on the south east coast, almost as “ewe” as opposed to the west coast and other regions. Another modern variation based upon migrants from Africa is found in Afrikaans accents on the west coast, modifying the local accents slightly due to the larger population and numbers of Afrikaans and Boer African immigration there. In the urban English speaking world, an educated, white-collar and/or conservative Australian accent is softer or generic in tonal quality, rather than the sharp tones in some rural areas. Regarding other variations in speech, usually native speakers can recognise the subtle regional variations.

A trend among Australians is social conservatism compared to some European cultures and an acquired balanced attitude, defining their European origins within a preference for the growing Asian influence. They tend to be relaxed regarding religious observance. The Australian sense of egalitarianism in its gungho form has moderated; while modes of address still tend to be casual and familiar compared to some other cultures, such as Asian. Most Australians will tend to address you by your first name and will expect that you reciprocate.

Holidays

The national holidays in Australia are:

  • 1 January: New Years’ Day
  • 26 January: Australia Day, marking the anniversary of the First Fleet’s landing in Sydney Cove in 1788.
  • Easter weekend (“Good Friday”, “Easter Saturday”, “Easter Sunday” and “Easter Monday”): a four day long weekend in March or April set according to the Western Christian calendar.
  • 25 April: ANZAC Day (Australia and New Zealand Army Corps), honouring military veterans
  • Second Monday in June: Queen’s birthday holiday (celebrated in Western Australia in September) (WA observes Foundation Day a week earlier)
  • 25 December: Christmas Day
  • 26 December: Boxing Day

Many states observe Labour Day, but on different days. Most states have one or two additional state-wide holidays, with Victoria and South Australia having a day off for a horse race (The Melbourne Cup and The Adelaide Cup). Western Australia has Foundation Day typically the first Monday in June (recognising the founding of the state since 1829) but also celebrates the Queen’s Birthday on a different date than the rest of the country, either at the end of September or early October, due to the usual June date’s close proximity to Foundation Day.

When a public holiday falls on a Saturday or Sunday, the following Monday (and Tuesday if necessary) are usually declared holidays in lieu, although both the celebrations and the retail closures will occur on the day itself. Most tourist attractions are closed Christmas Day and Good Friday. Supermarkets and other stores may open for limited hours on some public holidays and on holidays in lieu, but are almost always closed on Christmas Day (25 Dec), Good Friday, Easter Sunday and ANZAC Day morning.

Peak holiday times

Most attractions in Australia remain open year-round, some operating at a reduced frequency or shorter hours during the off-peak season.

Salaried Australians have four weeks of annual leave and school children in the major population centres have January as a long break. Domestic tourism is strongest during January and the Easter school holidays.

Summer tends to be the peak travel season through much of the south, with the winter (dry) season the peak travel season in the tropics.

Australian teenagers finishing high school celebrate the end of school (colloquially known as “Schoolies”) for a week beginning at the end of October to mid to late November (depending on area). The volume of teen revellers can completely change the nature of some of the cities and towns they choose to visit, (particularly the nationally popular Gold Coast) especially seeing as the vast majority of school-leavers will have reached the legal drinking age of 18.

Time

Australia can have up to five different time zones during the daylight savings period, and three at other times.

In the east, Tasmania, New South Wales and Victoria always have the same time. Queensland doesn’t observe daylight saving, so it is an hour behind the other eastern states during that period. However Broken Hill, a town in western NSW, keeps South Australian time.

In the centre, South Australia and the Northern Territory are half an hour behind during the winter, but the Northern Territory doesn’t observe daylight saving while South Australia does. During daylight saving South Australia remains half an hour behind New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania, but moves half an hour ahead of Queensland. The Northern Territory remains half an hour behind Queensland, but moves an hour and half behind New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.

In the west, Western Australia is two hours behind the eastern states in winter, and also doesn’t observe daylight saving. It moves three hours behind the eastern states that observe daylight saving (remaining two hours behind Queensland).

There are no official abbreviations or names for Australian time zones, and you may see a few variations used. EST, CST, WST along with EDT, CDT are sometimes used. Sometimes AEST, etc, with the ‘A’ prefix distinguishing them from the North American time zones with the same names. In conversation, the abbreviations aren’t used. People tend to say Sydney timeBrisbane time, or Perth time. Expect blank stares from most if you start talking about Central Summer Time.

In those states which observe daylight saving, it commences on the first Sunday in October and ends on the first Sunday in April.

State/TerritoryStandard TimeDaylight Saving Time
Western AustraliaUTC+8N/A
South AustraliaUTC+9.5UTC+10.5
Northern TerritoryUTC+9.5N/A
QueenslandUTC+10N/A
New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania. ACTUTC+10UTC+11

Regions

Australia regions

Australia regions

 

New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory (Canberra) (NSW) & (ACT)
New South Wales is Australia’s most populous state. The Harbour City of Sydney is Australia’s largest city. The coast of New South Wales is lined with beach side communities, each one offering experiences for the traveller. A little inland are the mountain ranges of the Blue Mountains and Snowy Mountains, as well as the purpose built capital city of Canberra, excised from New South Wales. Further inland still expect sweeping plains, turning from agriculture to desert the further inland you venture.
Northern Territory (NT)
From the red deserts surrounding Uluru and Alice Springs up to the tropics of Darwin and Kakadu National Park, the Northern Territory is stunningly beautiful, and easier to access than you might think.
Queensland (QLD)
Famous for its sunny warm weather, Queensland offers coastal exploration from the vibe of the Gold Coast to the tropics of the Great Barrier Reef to the bustling city of Brisbane. It is also home to tropical rainforests of the Daintree National Park, and the island resorts of the Whitsundays. Inland lies the ranges of the hinterland, and further on the vast expanses and beauty of outback Australia.
South Australia (SA)
Renowned for the fine wines of the Barossa Valley, the beauty of the Flinders Ranges and the outback, the wildlife and nature on Kangaroo Island and the beaches and events and culture of the City of Churches, Adelaide.
Tasmania (TAS)
Separated from the mainland by Bass Strait, Tasmania has rugged beauty of Cradle Mountain and the west, the beaches of the east, and the complete wilderness of the south. Hobart was the site of the second European settlement in Australia, and many historic sites are well preserved. The island has well developed facilities for travellers.
Victoria (VIC)
Small, vibrant and with something for everyone, Victoria has dramatic surf beaches along the southwest and central coast, green rolling farmland and photogenic national parks. The diversity of rural Victoria is very easy to access due in part to its size and well maintained roads. Australia and Victoria’s sporting, shopping, fashion and food capital is Melbourne.
Western Australia (WA)
A vast state. The south-west contains the state capital and major city of Perth closely surrounded by the wildflower, wine growing and scenic destinations of Margaret River and Albany. In the far north are the tropics and the beach side destination of Broome. Small townships, roadhouses, mining communities and national parks scattered around the long distances between.

Islands

  • Lord Howe Island – Two hours flying time from Sydney, with a permanent population, and developed facilities. (Part of New South Wales)
  • Norfolk Island – Direct flights from the East Coast, and from Auckland. Permanent population, and developed facilities.
  • Christmas Island – Famous for its red crab migration. Flights from Perth and Kuala Lumpur, developing facilities.
  • Cocos Islands – Coral atolls, populated, accessible by flights from Perth, with some facilities for travel.
  • Torres Strait Islands – between Cape York and Papua New Guinea, most islands have some traveller facilities but require permission from the traditional owners to visit. Flights from Cairns.
  • Ashmore and Cartier Islands – uninhabited with no developed traveller facilities.
  • Coral Sea Islands – largely uninhabited, with no developed traveller facilities.
  • Heard Island and McDonald Islands – uninhabited islands over 4000km from the Australian mainland.
  • Macquarie Island – An Australian Antarctic base, halfway to Antarctica. No facilities for travellers.
  • Kangaroo Island – The third largest island in Australia and a paradise for nature and wildlife lovers.

Cities


  • Canberra — the purpose-built national capital of Australia
  • Adelaide — the wine capitol of the world, a relaxed South Australian alternative to the big eastern cities
  • Brisbane — capital of sun-drenched Queensland and gateway to beautiful sandy beaches
  • Cairns — gateway to the Great Barrier Reef, Port Douglas, Daintree National Park, and many beautiful beaches and resorts; a great place for people to getaway to and relax
  • Darwin — Australia’s tropical northern capital, at the top end of the Northern Territory
  • Hobart — picturesque and quiet capital of Tasmania, the site of the second convict settlement in Australia
  • Melbourne — Australia’s second largest city, Melbourne is a large sporting, shopping and cultural capital; it is regarded as Australia’s most European city in style
  • Perth — the most remote continental capital city on Earth, on the south-western edge of Western Australia
Sydney Harbour, with the city skyline and Harbour Bridge, viewed from Kiribilli at night

Sydney Harbour, with the city skyline and Harbour Bridge, viewed from Kiribilli at night

 

  • Sydney — Australia’s oldest and largest city, famous for its picturesque harbour

Other destinations


  • Blue Mountains — a mountainous region in New South Wales, including the Three Sisters
  • Dandenong Ranges — these beautiful ranges offer world class gardens and the picturesque villages of Mt. Dandenong
  • Great Barrier Reef — off the coast of Queensland, easily accessible from Cairns, and even as far south as the Town of 1770
  • Great Ocean Road — a spectacular coastal drive in Victoria past many scenic icons including the 12 Apostles
  • Kakadu National Park — outback adventure travel, aboriginal culture and nature activities in the Northern Territory
  • Nitmiluk National Park — the amazing Katherine Gorge, close to the town of Katherine
  • Sunshine Coast and Gold Coast — beachside and national park playgrounds north and south of Brisbane]
  • Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park — Uluru (also known as Ayers Rock) and Kata Tjuta (The Olgas) are iconic rock formations in the Red Centre
  • Watarrka National Park — most famous for Kings Canyon, a mighty chasm reaching a depth of 270 metres
  • Wilson’s Prom – magnificent white sandy beaches and rock formations. Great scenic walks though natural bush to hidden beaches, all very doable in a day’s walk, while same can include a camp overnight along the way.
  • Phillip Island – site of the Fairy Penquin parade each evening

Get in


All visitors – apart from citizens of New Zealand – require a visa in advance of travel.

If you are visiting for a holiday of less than three months, there are three types of visas you may apply for, depending on your nationality:

  • eVisitor (subclass 651) for citizens of the 31 EEA countries as well as citizens of Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, Switzerland and Vatican City. These visas are free, but otherwise effectively identical to the ETA. You must apply on-line.
  • Electronic Travel Authority (ETA) (subclass 601) is available on-line to nationals of Brunei, Canada, Hong Kong SAR, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea (ROK) and United States. The citizens of some eVisitor eligible countries and citizens of Taiwan may also apply for the ETA but solely through a travel agent, airline, specialist service provider or an Australian visa office outside Australia. A service fee of AUD20 applies. This fee can be waived if you obtain your ETA through a travel agent. However, there are on-line services which charge much more, as much as double, for the ETA. If applying on-line, stay with the government service to save money.
  • Tourist Visas is required for people who wish to come to Australia to travel or visit friends and family.Travellers from non-ETA eligible countries, those wishing to stay in Australia for more than three (3) months or tourists already in Australia wishing to extend their stay are required to make a paper-based tourist visa application.
  • Online Visitor visa (subclass e600). Holders of passports of all the ETA and eVisitor eligible countries and also the following 27 eligible countries Algeria, Argentina, Bahrain, Belarus, Brazil, Chile, Egypt, Macedonia, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Libya, Maldives, Micronesia, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, Nauru, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Sudan, Tunisia, Turkey, UAE and Ukraine can make visa applications online. The fee for this is AUD130.
  • Visitor visa (subclass 600). Other nationalities must apply using the paper form, and may need to visit an embassy or visa processing centre.
Like the ETA and eVisitor, a 600 Visa is by default issued for a three-month stay. Unlike the other options however, a 600 visa can be issued for longer stay of up to one year. That said, immigration is somewhat reluctant to approve tourist visas for more than three months, no matter how legitimate your reasons for staying so long. You will likely be asked for extensive supporting documentation about the reason for your visit and your ties to your country of origin and may need to attend an interview. Depending on your nationality, the embassy or visa processing centre may also require you to have an Australian sponsor prior to issuing the visa. The fee is AUD130.

In most cases, Electronic Travel Authorities and eVisitors are approved instantly and the visa will be issued and available for use immediately. Nationals of certain countries, such as Bulgaria and Romania and other Eastern European EU member states, are rarely issued eVisitor visa automatically and must provide additional documentation.

If you are visiting Australia for employment, study or for medical treatment you will need to obtain the appropriate visa. If you are staying longer than 3 months continuously you are ineligible for an ETA or eVisitor, and should apply for a Visitor Visa (subclass 600).

For all visitor visa classes, you must be able to demonstrate your ability to support yourself financially for the time you intend to spend in Australia. If you have a criminal conviction, obtain advice from the Australian Embassy or visa processing centre.

All fees are payable in Australian dollars, converted to your local currency at the current rate of exchange.

If you are transiting through Australia, remain airside for a maximum of 8 hours, have a confirmed onward booking, have the correct entry documentation for the onward destination and are a citizen of New Zealand, the European Union, Andorra, Argentina, Brunei, Canada, Cyprus, the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Iceland, Indonesia, Japan, Kiribati, Liechtenstein, Malaysia, Mexico, Monaco, Nauru, Norway, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, South Africa, the Republic of Marshall Islands, Samoa, San Marino, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Korea (ROK), Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom (regardless of nationality status), the United States, the Vanuatu or Vatican City, you do not need to apply for any advance visa. All other passengers who transit through Australia must apply for a free-of-charge Transit Visa (subclass 771) prior to travel.

New Zealand citizens may travel to and work in Australia for any length of time without a pre-arranged visa. Non-citizen permanent residents of New Zealand are not eligible for visa-free entry. New Zealand citizens may still be rejected entry on the basis of criminal convictions or being HIV-positive and should seek advice before travel.

Customs and quarantine

Australia has strict quarantine requirements regarding importing animal and vegetable derived products (any food, wooden products, seeds, etc). You must declare all such material and baggage is frequently scanned and may be examined by dogs. You may be fined $220 on-the-spot if you fail to declare, or even prosecuted in very serious cases. Processed and sealed commercially prepared foods (chocolates, cookies, etc) are often permitted. They will be examined and returned to you, but still must be declared. Some prohibited items can be treated by quarantine at your expense and picked up at a later time.

Some shells, coral and items made from a protected species are also prohibited to discourage the trade in items that may originate from a threatened ecosystem or species.

While there are no restrictions on the amount of money that can be brought in or out, Australian customs also requires you to declare if you are bringing AUD10,000 (or equivalent in foreign currency) or more in or out of the country and you will be asked to complete some paperwork.

By plane

Australia is a long way from anywhere else in the world, so for most visitors, the only practical way of getting into Australia is by air.

Approximately half of all international travellers arrive first in Australia in Sydney, the largest city, (IATA: SYD). After Sydney, significant numbers of travellers also arrive in Australia in Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth. There are also direct international services into Adelaide, Cairns, Darwin, the Gold Coast and Christmas Island though these are largely restricted to flights from New Zealand, Oceania, or Southeast Asia.

To Sydney it is a 3 hour flight from New Zealand, a 7-11h flight from countries in Asia, a 14 hour flight from the west of the United States and Canada, a 14 hour flight from Johannesburg, a 13-16h flight from South America, and up to a 24h+ flight from western Europe. On account of long journey times from some destinations, some travellers from Europe opt to have a stop-over, commonly in Singapore, Hong Kong, Dubai, Bangkok or Kuala Lumpur.

If you have to change to a domestic flight in a gateway city, Sydney, Brisbane and Perth all have distinct domestic terminals, requiring some time and complexity to transit, check the guides. Melbourne, Adelaide, Darwin, Cairns and the Gold Coast have all gates in the one terminal building or within easy walking distance of each other.

Discount airlines

There are some routes into Australia that are operated by discount airlines. These can often be combined with other fares to make getting to Australia cheaper. Select your point of entry and exit to give you a cheaper round-trip, and possibly some interesting stopover opportunities on the way.

  • Air Asia X, flies into the Gold Coast, Melbourne, Sydney, Perth and Adelaide from Kuala Lumpur, at often deeply discounted fares. You can save money from Europe if having a stopover in Malaysia. Sometimes this is possible also stopping in Bangkok.
  • Air Asia Indonesia flies into Darwin and Perth from Denpasar, Indonesia
  • Scoot flies into Gold Coast, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney from Singapore.
  • Tiger flies from Singapore to Perth.
  • Jetstar Airways flies to Hawaii and several Asian destinations, including Denpasar, Osaka, Phuket, Ho Chi Minh, via Darwin, and also operates a substantial Asian regional hub in Singapore.
  • Virgin Australia flies between Melbourne, Brisbane, Sydney, and Los Angeles, and competes strongly with Qantas and Delta on these routes.

By boat

November to February is the cruising season, and there are usually about 10 ships that arrive in Australia from other countries during this time. You can cruise to Australia, and then fly home.

Holland America Line, Princess Cruises and Royal Caribbean, all offer cruises to Australia across the Pacific.

Alternatively, you may sail to Australia in your own yacht, but beware of customs regulations. See Australian Customs for details

By overland transport

There was a time when a couple of tour operators offered overland trips from London to Sydney, with only a short hop by air from South East Asia to North Western Australia while the bus went by barge. Currently, the only such tour operator is Madventure which runs 4 different routes: 26 weeks through Iran, Pakistan, & India; 26 weeks through the Caucasus and Central Asia; 64 weeks around Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia; and 64 weeks through Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus, & Central Asia.

For those determined to travel overland as much as possible from Europe, you can travel independently to Singapore from Europe by train and/or bus on scheduled services, and fly from there to Perth (3,500 flight kilometres). For the truly determined overland traveller, you can get a ferry from Singapore to Indonesia and make your way across to Bali, where you can fly to Darwin (2,000 flight km). For the intrepid, ferries to West Timor, a bus to Dili and a flight to Darwin will mean only 700 km in the air.

Get around


Australia is huge but sparsely populated, and you can sometimes travel many hours before finding the next trace of civilisation, especially once you leave the south-eastern coastal fringe.

Almost all modern Australian maps, including street directories, use the Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA) as their grid reference, which is for all purposes identical to the WGS84 used by the GPS. You can locate most things on an Australian map or street directory if you just have the “GPS coordinates”.

Quarantine

There are restrictions on carrying fruit and vegetables (including honey) between states and even between regions of states that are involved in fruit growing. If you are driving long distances or interstate, or flying between states, don’t stock up on fruits and vegetables. These restrictions are enforced very strictly at airports and sea ports and it is not very uncommon to see sniffer dogs trained to find these goods.

By car

Australia has a generally well-maintained system of roads and highways, and cars are a commonly used method of transport. Most of the state capitals are linked to each other by good quality highways. Some parts are dual carriageway but many sections are one lane each way. Major regional areas have sealed (paved) dual-lane roads, but isolated areas may have poorly maintained dirt roads or even tracks. Distances and speeds are specified in kilometres and fuel is sold by the litre. There are no tolls on roads or bridges outside of the urban areas of Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane.

Australia drives on the left. Overseas visitors who are used to driving on the right should take care when they first drive, and again when they are driving on country roads with little traffic. One major frustration for visitors is that many Australian vehicles reverse all controls when they are redesigned to mount the driver’s controls on the right front seat, including the levers on the steering column. This causes newly arrived visitors to inadvertently operate the windscreen wipers when they are trying to signal a lane change or turn on headlights, and vice versa.

Generally, overseas licenses are valid for driving in Australia for three months after arrival. If the licence is not in English an International Driving Permit (IDP) is required in addition to your licence. Licensing regulations and road rules vary slightly from state to state.

Australia’s low population density and large size makes for long driving times between major centres. Some indicative travel times, not including any rest periods, are:

  • Melbourne to Sydney: 9-10 hours (900km / 560 mi)
  • Brisbane to Sydney: 12-13 hours (1,000km / 621 mi)
  • Perth to Sydney: 45 hours (4,000km / 2500 mi)
  • Sydney to Canberra: 3.5 hours (300km / 185 mi)
  • Adelaide to Melbourne: 8-10 hours (750km / 465 mi)
  • Brisbane to Melbourne: 19-20 hours (1,700km / 1056 mi)
  • Melbourne to Perth: 40 hours (3,500km / 2175 mi)
  • Perth to Adelaide: 32 hours (2,700km / 1677 mi)
  • Brisbane to Cairns: 22-24 hours (1,700km / 1,056 mi)

It is almost impossible to predict your travel time just by knowing the distance. Seek local advice for the best route, and how much time to allow. Averaging 100km/h or more is possible on some relatively minor highways when they are straight and there are few towns. On other national highways that traverse mountain ranges and travel through small towns, even averaging 60km/h can be a challenge.

While major highways are well serviced, anyone leaving sealed (paved) roads in inland Australia is advised to take advice from local authorities, check weather and road conditions, carry sufficient spare fuel, spare parts, spare tyres, matches, food and water. Some remote roads might see one car per month or less. Cellular coverage is non-existent outside of major highways and towns and you should take some precautions in case of emergency. It is a good idea to advise a person you know and trust of your route and advise them to alert authorities if you do not contact them within a reasonable amount of time after your scheduled arrival at your destination. Carrying a Personal Locator Beacon (PLB) or satellite phone should be considered when travelling in remote areas, especially where you may not be able to make contact for several days. Police will not automatically start looking for you if you don’t report in. Make sure you get one with a GPS built in. These can be borrowed from some local police stations, such as those in the Blue Mountains in New South Wales. If you want to hire one, sort it out before you leave a major city, as you won’t find hire places in small towns. Expect to pay around $100 to hire for a week, or $700 to buy one. Don’t expect an immediate rescue even if you trigger a PLB. Heat and dehydration at any time of year can kill you. If stranded, stay with your vehicle and do what you can to improve your visibility from the air. Do not take this advice lightly; even local people die out there when their car breaks down and they are not reported missing. If you do have to abandon your car (say you break down and then get a lift), call in quickly to the local police station, to avoid the embarrassment and cost of a search being started for you.

Car rental

Major cities around Australia have multiple outlets providing a wide range of rental vehicles from major international rental companies. In smaller towns car rental can be difficult to find. One way fees often apply from smaller regional outlets.

Contractual restrictions
Conditions upon the use of rental vehicles usually exist on travelling into or out of Western Australia and the Northern Territory or on the car ferries to Tasmania, Kangaroo Island and Fraser Island. Rental cars in capital cities usually have unlimited mileage. In small towns they usually only include 100km a day before a surcharge is applied. Some companies allow travel on any gazetted road, while others forbid travel on a gravel/dirt road unless you hire a four wheel drive. Always ensure you thoroughly check the vehicle for any damage, including all window glass and the roof panels, and document any found in detail with the renter before leaving the depot.You will need to have a licence written in English or an International Driving Permit (IDP) from your home country to drive anywhere in Australia. Check the contract conditions carefully if you are under 25 and also check that your licence class matches the vehicle you wish to rent before you book it.
  • Redspot
  • Avis
  • Aries
  • Hertz
  • Budget
  • Europcar.
  • Thrifty.
  • No Birds.

Camper vans

  • Cruisin Motorhomes
  • Apollo
  • AusVenture
  • Britz
  • Maui

Budget car and camper rentals

Catering to the vast number of young European and American backpackers traversing the country are several low-budget car rental companies which rent cars and campers of varying quality. Prices range from as low as $30 per day. Check the extra charges very carefully and make sure that you don’t end up paying the same or more for a lesser quality vehicle.

  • Camperjourney.com
  • Cut Price Car Rentals
  • East Coast Car Rentals
  • Hippie Camper
  • Jucy Rentals
  • Spaceships
  • Travellers Auto-Barn
  • Campervan Finder
  • Travelwheels Campervan Hire Australia

The very cheapest cars you can hire can be manual (stick-shift). Anything larger will usually be automatic.

Car purchase

There is a substantial second hand market in cars and campers for backpackers wishing to do extended road trips around Australia. Take common sense precautions if purchasing a car. Free state government services are available to ensure it is unencumbered by a finance arrangement and that it has not been previously written off as a result of an accident.

See: Driving in Australia

By plane

Due to the large distances involved, flying is well-patronised in Australia. Services along the main business travel corridor (Melbourne-Sydney-Brisbane) are run almost like a bus service, with flights leaving every 15min during the day.

The only way to get the best airfare is to visit each of the airlines pages directly, and compare fares. Never assume that the Qantas fare will be more expensive, as their online deals are often the cheapest available on a route. The best fares are always available on the most competitive routes. Consolidator websites and travel agents almost invariably add a surcharge to the direct booking price. Use them to compare, but always check the airline website before booking.

There are four domestic airlines in Australia that operate jet aircraft linking capital cities and major destinations:

  • Qantas, a nation-wide full service airline, flys to major cities and some larger regional towns;
  • Virgin Australia, recently upgraded to a full service airline, flys to all capital cities and many larger regional destinations. Virgin have recently offered a complimentary snack on all domestic flights and checked baggage included in even the minimum fare class;
  • Jetstar, Qantas’s discount arm with limited service and limited pre-assigned seating. Serves all capital cities and many major regional and tourist destinations.
  • Tiger Airways Australia, one of Asia’s largest low cost carrier (LCC) has a hub in Melbourne and flies to all other capital cities and select destinations with very competitive prices. On 2 July 2011 Tiger Airways Australia was suspended from flying by Australian civil aviation authorities due to safety concerns. Tiger recommenced operations on 12 August 2011 but with a much reduced schedule and a smaller operational aircraft fleet.

Several airlines service regional destinations. Expect discounts on these airlines to be harder to come by, and for standard airfares to be above what you would pay for the same distance between major centres.

  • Qantaslink, the regional arm of Qantas, covering the smaller cities in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Western Australia;
  • Regional Express, covering larger towns & cities on the eastern seaboard as well as country South Australia;
  • Skywest , covering regional Western Australia, Bali and Darwin;
  • Airnorth , covering the Northern Territory;
  • Skytrans Airlines , covering regional Queensland.
  • Sharp Airlines , covering several regional towns in Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia.
  • Northern Territory Air Services, covering the remote communities of central Australia.

By train

The Ghan at the Broken Hill railway station.

The Ghan at the Broken Hill railway station.

Visitors from countries with well-developed long distance rail systems such as Europe and Japan may be surprised by the lack of high-speed, inter-city rail services in Australia. A historical lack of cooperation between the states, combined with sheer distances and a relatively small population to service, have left Australia with a national rail network that is relatively slow and used mainly for freight. As a result, travel between major cities will not only be faster by air, but often cheaper as well. Train travel between cities is, however, more scenic, and tourists are likely to see more of Australia travelling by train than they would otherwise see, as well as cutting down on their carbon footprint. It is also often a cost effective way of getting to regional towns and cities, which don’t have the frequent and cheap flights found between the capital cities.

Occasionally rail fares may be far cheaper than air fares for holders of ISIC cards and other internationally recognised concessions (especially on NSW TrainLink and V/Line services), however it is best to weigh up whether the saving is worth the long journey time.

The long-distance rail services that do exist are mainly used to link regional townships with the state capital, such as Bendigo to Melbourne, or Cairns to Brisbane. In Queensland, a high speed train operates from Brisbane to Rockhampton and Brisbane to Cairns. Queensland also has passenger services to inland centres including Longreach (The Spirit of the Outback), Mount Isa (The Inlander), Charleville (The Westlander) and Forsayth (The Savannahlander). There are also inter-city train services operated by Great Southern Railways on the routes Melbourne-Adelaide (The Overland), Sydney-Adelaide-Perth (Indian Pacific), Adelaide-Alice Springs-Darwin (The Ghan) however as noted above, these are not “high speed” services, so if you do not enjoy train travel as part of your holiday in its own right then this is probably not for you.

Tasmania has no passenger rail services. The Northern Territory has the rail line linking Darwin to Adelaide through Alice Springs only, and the Australian Capital Territory has only a single railway station close to the centre of Canberra.

Long distance train operators

  • Great Southern Rail . – A private train operator running tourist train services, The Ghan, The Indian Pacific and The Overland between Sydney, Broken Hill, Adelaide, Alice Springs, Darwin, Perth and Melbourne.
  • NSW TrainLink – Links Sydney to Melbourne, Brisbane and Canberra, and regional connections to most New South Wales towns, including Dubbo, Coffs Harbour, and Wagga Wagga.
  • V/Line – Train & coach services in Victoria, including combined Train and Coach services between Melbourne and Adelaide, Melbourne and Canberra.
  • Queensland Rail Travel  – Long distance passenger train services in Queensland
  • The Savannahlander – A private Queensland train service that links Cairns with the outback town of Forsayth, using old heritage trains, and providing overnight accommodation and tours on the way.
  • Transwa – State government run, operating train services to Kalgoorlie and Bunbury. Also operates coach services to the southern half of the state, especially the South West.

Rail passes

There is no pass that includes all train travel throughout Australia. However, if you are a train buff that intends travelling extensively by rail, there are some passes that may save you money. Plan your trip carefully before investing in a rail pass. Country train services are infrequent and can arrive at regional destinations at unsociable hours.

  • NSW TrainLink Discovery Pass. Get on and off as many times as you like on the NSW TrainLink trains between Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Broken Hill, Dubbo, Griffith and Canberra, using the NSW TrainLink services. Different prices apply depending on which fare type applies to you and the duration of the pass you decide to purchase. NSW TrainLink coach connections to local towns are included. This ticket is available to everyone, including international visitors. You’ll want to be breaking your journey between capital cities several times to get value from this pass.
  • Queensland Explorer Pass . The Queensland Explorer Pass offers unlimited travel for one or two months across the Queensland Rail Travel network. See every corner of Queensland; from Cairns in the north, to Brisbane in the south and the Queensland Outback that extends to Charleville, Longreach and Mount Isa. Only international visitors can purchase the pass. The price depends on the duration of the pass.

Local public transport

Sydney Trains

Sydney Trains

Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Wollongong and Newcastle have train and bus services integrated into the city public transport, with trams also running in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide and the Gold Coast and ferries in Sydney, Brisbane, Perth and Newcastle. The remaining capital cities have bus services only. See those city guides articles for public transport details. Sydney has a subway system known as Sydney Metro that is currently under construction.

Some regional cities and towns have local bus services, but see the destination guides for service information, as frequency can be poor and weekend and evening services non-existent.

Larger towns and cities have taxi services.

By motorail

Some trains allow you to carry your car with you on special car carriages attached to the back of the train.

The Ghan and the Indian Pacific allow you to transport cars between Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Alice Springs, Perth, and Darwin. You cannot remove your car at any of the intermediate stations.

Queensland Rail have discontinued their motorail service.

By bus

Bus travel in Australia is cheap and convenient, although the distances involved can be daunting. Greyhound has the largest bus route network.

  • Firefly Express 1300 730 740 (+61 3 8318-0318 – international callers, enquiries@fireflyexpress.com.au),. Firefly Express has services connecting Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney.
  • Greyhound 1300 473 946 (info@greyhound.com.au),. Greyhound travels to over 1100 destinations in Australia daily every day of the year. It has a variety of ticketing options allow you to travel at your own pace, hopping on and off as many times as your ticket allows.
  • Murrays 13 22 51 (reservations@murrays.com.au),. Murrays has services connecting Canberra with Sydney, the NSW South Coast and snowfields.  
  • Australia Wide Coaches 02 9516 1300 (info@austwidecoaches.com.au),. Australia Wide Coaches run daily services connecting Sydney with, the NSW South Coast and beyond. 

By boat

Many major Australian cities have ferries as part of their public transport system. Some smaller roads in the regional areas still have punts to carry cars across rivers and canals. The islands of the Barrier Reef have some scheduled services, and there are a few cruises that cross the top of Australia as well.

However, large inter city transportation ferry services are not common.

  • The Spirit of Tasmania. The only long distance ferry route connects Tasmania to the mainland and runs between Melbourne and Devonport. The Spirit of Tasmania carries cars and passengers on the route across Bass Strait daily.
  • Sealink connects Kangaroo Island, Australia’s second largest southern island with regular car and passenger ferries.
  • Sea SA offers a short cut across the Spencer Gulf between Adelaide and the Eyre Peninsula, running daily car ferry services.

By thumb

It is legal to hitchhike in some states in Australia, so long as certain guidelines are followed. However, it is less commonly done than in neighbouring New Zealand. In Australia hitchhiking is often frowned upon by locals and police, especially in metropolitan areas.

Hitch hiking is illegal in Victoria and Queensland. It is also illegal to stand on the verge or walk along freeways (often called “motorways” in New South Wales) in all states (effectively making hitchhiking illegal in many practical places, in all states).

If forced to hitchhike due to an emergency you may find a motorist willing to take you to the nearest town to obtain help. (Some major inter-city highways and freeways have telephones to request help.)

It’s most common to see a tourist hitching in rural areas. The best time to hitchhike is early morning. The best location is near, but not on, the main exit from the town you are in.

By bicycle

Cycling the long distances between towns is not particularly common, and most long distance highways in Australia have poorly developed facilities for cyclists. Nevertheless some intrepid travellers do manage to cover the longer distances by bicycle, and have a different experience of Australia. Trips and routes need careful planning to ensure the correct supplies are carried. To cycle between Sydney and Brisbane you would have to allow 2-3 weeks with around 80-100km per day.

See


There is much to see in Australia that you can’t see easily in its natural setting anywhere else:

Wildlife

Koala

Koala

Australian flora and fauna is unique to the island, the result of having been isolated from the rest of the world for millions of years. Amongst Australian animals are a large group of marsupials (mammals with a pouch) and monotremes (mammals that lay eggs). Just some of the animal icons of Australia are the kangaroo (national symbol) and the koala. A visit to Australia would not be complete without taking the chance to see some of these animals in their natural environment.

Wildlife parks and zoos

  • Wildlife parks and zoos are in every capital city, but also check out the animal parks if you are passing through smaller towns, like Mildura or Mogo, or staying on Hamilton Island. See the Warrawong Fauna Sanctuary if you are in South Australia, or visit the koalas with best view in the world, at Taronga Zoo in Sydney.

In the wild

Kangaroos in Australia

Kangaroos in Australia

  • Kangaroos and wallabies reside in national parks all around the country. You won’t see any kangaroos hopping down the street in Central Sydney, but they are common on the outskirts of most urban areas. There is also a famous group which make their home on the of grounds of the University of the Sunshine Coast, in Queensland.
  • Wombats and echidna are also common, but harder to find due to their camouflage and tunnelling. See lots of echidnas on Kangaroo Island.
  • Koalas are present in forests around Australia, but are very notoriously hard to spot, and walking around looking upwards into the boughs of trees will usually send you sprawling over a tree root. Best seen during the day, there is a thriving and friendly population on Raymond Island near Paynesville in Victoria. You have a good chance on Otway Coast, on the Great Ocean Road, or even in the National Park walk near Noosa on the Sunshine Coast.
  • Emu are more common in central Australia. You will certainly see some if you venture to the outback national park at Currawinya
  • Platypus are found in reedy flowing creeks with soft river banks in Victoria, Southern New South Wales, and the very southern region of Queensland – seen at dusk and dawn – you have to have a bit of luck to see one. Try the platypus reserves in Bombala or Delegate in New South Wales, or in Emu Creek at Skipton just out of Ballarat.
  • Australia has an extremely diverse range of bird life.
    • Cockatoos are a family of birds that can be found across the continent, including in major cities. The iconic sulphur-crested cockatoo is a very common sight even in inner Sydney, as are galahs and corellas. Wild cockatiels are uncommon and limited to certain rural areas. Easily observed early in the morning or in the evening.
    • Australian Magpies can be found across the continent, and are especially common in suburban areas, but watch out for swooping!
    • Kookaburras are another iconic species found are not quite as common, but still quite prevalent, particularly on and around the Great Dividing Range.
    • Emus are much less common, and will typically be observed as a distant cloud of dust while driving on highways in inland rural areas.

Landmarks

Australia has many landmarks, famous the world over. From Uluru in the red centre, to the Sydney Harbour Bridge and Opera House in Sydney.

The unusual

See some of the Big things in Australia.

Sports

Sport is an integral part of the Australian culture from the capital cities to country towns. The majority of games are played over the weekend period (from Friday night to Monday night).

  • In the winter in Victoria Aussie Rules (Australian Rules Football) is more than just a sport, it is a way of life. Catch a game at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. The Australian Football League is a national competition with teams from Sydney, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, and the Gold Coast, but roughly half of the teams (and hence, most of the matches) are Melbourne-based.
  • In summer, international cricket is played between Australia and at least two touring sides. The games rotate around all the capital cities. To experience the traditional game catch a day of the New Year’s test match at the Sydney Cricket Ground, usually beginning on January 2nd, or the Boxing Day Test match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Whilst ‘test matches’ last for up to five days, many spectators attend just one day, or watch from the comfort of their own home. For a more lively and entertaining form more suited to those unfamiliar with the sport, try a Twenty20 match, which only takes a few hours. Only a handful of international T20 matches are played each year, with no more than one per city, but the domestic Big Bash League runs throughout the summer, providing more frequent spectating opportunities. A third form is “One Day” Cricket, with international matches generally starting at 13:00 and finishing at 22:00 or 23:00 (a “Day-Nighter”), with most domestic and occasional international matches played from 11:00 to 18:00. The Australia Day One Day International is usually held in Adelaide on 26 January.
  • The Australian Open, one of the tennis Grand Slams, is played annually in Melbourne. Or the Medibank International in Sydney Olympic Park in January.
  • Catch a rugby union Super Rugby game, with teams playing from Australia, New Zealand and South Africa in Brisbane, Canberra, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney during late Summer/Autumn. The Australian national team, the Wallabies, also host international teams during winter, including New Zealand, South Africa and (starting in 2012) Argentina for The Rugby Championship (formerly the Tri Nations tournament).
  • Rugby League is the dominant winter sport in New South Wales and Queensland. The National Rugby League (NRL) competition includes teams from Melbourne in Victoria, Brisbane, North Queensland and the Gold Coast in Queensland, a team from New Zealand, with the rest of the teams coming from suburban areas in Sydney, and some in regional areas of New South Wales such as Newcastle and Canberra. Aside from the NRL Grand Final, Rugby League’s centrepiece is an annual series of three ‘State of Origin’ games played between New South Wales and Queensland.
  • Netball is Australia’s largest female sport, and there are weekly games in an international competition between Australia and New Zealand teams.
  • Football (Soccer) is a small event by European standards, but there is a national A-League, which is a fully professional league involving teams from Australia and one from New Zealand, with games played weekly during the summer. Most cities have a semi-professional “state league” played during winter, with most clubs being built around a specific ethnic/migrant community.
  • Melbourne also hosts the Formula One Australian Grand Prix, which is run once a year. The 2013 race will take place between the 14th and 17th of March, with the main race on the 17th.
  • Horse Racing – All major cities and most regional towns have their own courses and race betting is popular throughout the country. The annual Melbourne Cup is possibly the best known meet when most Victorians take a day off work to celebrate or attend. It is common to see some of the country’s top celebrities dressed in their finest in the stands.

Itineraries

  • Gibb River Road
  • Gunbarrel Highway
  • Oodnadatta Track
  • Stuart Highway: crossing Australia north-south

Do


Australia is known for having some of the most beautiful beaches in the world.

Australia is known for having some of the most beautiful beaches in the world.

  • Family Days Out,. Fun things for to do with the kids in Australia.  

Swim

  • in the surf. Australia has seemingly endless sandy beaches. Follow the crowds to the world famous Bondi Beach in Sydney, or Surfers Paradise on the Gold Coast. Or find a stretch all for yourself (but beware of dangerous rips on beaches, it is considerably safer to find a patrolled beach). The surf is smaller and warmer in the Tropical North, where the reef breaks the swell, and larger and colder in the south with waves rolling in from the Southern Ocean. (And yes, in the middle it is just right).
  • in calm tropical oceans. Cable Beach in Broome is swept pristine daily by the tide, has perfect sand, and warm water – go in winter.
  • in thermal pools. South of Darwin there are many natural thermal pools such as Berry Springs & Mataranka, surrounded by palms and tropical foliage.
  • in freshwater lakes. Inland Australia tends to be dry, but there are freshwater lakes where you would least expect them. Explore inland of Cairns at the Atherton Tablelands, or head outback to the Currawinya National Park.
  • in rivers. If its hot, and there is water, there will be a place to swim. Wherever you are, just ask around for the favourite swimming spot, with a waterhole and rope to swing on. Watch out for crocodiles.
  • in man-made pools. The local swimming pool is often the hub of community life on a summer Sunday in the country towns of New South Wales and Victoria. Many of the beachside suburbs of Sydney have man made rock pools for swimming by the ocean beaches.
  • on the beach! Find your spot by the water, and get out the towel. Tropical north in the winter, down south in the summer. As always when in Australia, protect yourself from the sun.

Diving

  • Snorkelling take a trip out to the Great Barrier Reef on the Queensland coast, or the Ningaloo Reef off the coast of Western Australia. Or take a trip out to Julian rocks off Byron Bay, or just dive in off the beach to see the tropical fish in Bundaberg.
  • Scuba Diving

Activities

  • Bushwalking is a popular Australian activity. You can go bushwalking in the many National parks and Rainforests in the country.
  • Golf
  • Rock Climbing
  • Mountain Biking. Try the trails in the Snowy Mountains or black mountain in Canberra, or cycle for days along the Munda Biddi Mountain Bike trail in Western Australia.
  • Horse Riding . The horse has a rich tradition in the settlement of Australia since the arrival of the first European settlers. Relying on the horse to travel the vast distances and harsh environments of Australia was the foundation of a strong and lasting relationship between Australians and their horses. Today horse riding in Australia includes many recreational and occupational activities from cattle musters on vast stations, to the multi-million dollar racing industry. On the outskirts of towns and cities and out in the rural landscape, you will see the many pony paddocks and much loved horses that are a testament to the ongoing passion and commitment Australian horse owners have to their horses and the enjoyment they bring.
  • Water Activities Australia has many beautiful locations for kayaking or other water activities. See manlykayakcentre.com.au to book a kayak tour, SUP lesson, Paradise Picnic, or SUPBALL game in Sydney, Australia
  • Skiing. New South Wales and Victoria have well developed ski facilities. Tasmania can also have skiing for a few months of the year, given the right weather. See Winter sports in Australia
  • Sky Diving, all around Australia
  • Hot Air Ballooning, in Canberra, Brisbane or in the Red Centre.

Gamble

It has been said that if there are two flies crawling up a wall, then you just need to look around to find the Aussie who will be running a book.

  • Casinos. Crown Casino in Melbourne is the largest in the Southern Hemisphere, nicely located at Southbank, but there are others scattered in every capital city as well as Cairns, Launceston, the Gold Coast and Townsville.
  • Day at the races. All capital cities have horse racing every weekend, with on-track and off-track betting available, they are usually family occasions, and fashion and being seen are part of the event. Just about every pub in New South Wales will have a TAB, where you can place a bet without leaving your chair at the bar. Greyhound racing and trotting happens in the evenings, usually with smaller crowds, more beer, and less fashion. Smaller country towns have race meetings every few months or even annually. These are real events for the local communities, and see the smaller towns come to life. Head outback to the Birdsville races, or if you find the streets deserted it is probably ten past three on the first Tuesday in November (the running of the Melbourne cup).
  • The unusual. The lizard races, cane toad races, camel races, crab races. Betting on these races is totally illegal, and at you will find the TIB (Totally Illegal Betting) around the back of the shed at the annual guinea pig races at Grenfell.
  • Two up. If you are around for Anzac Day (25 April), then betting on coins thrown into the air will be happening at your local RSL club, wherever you are.
  • Australia has almost a quarter of all the slot machines (locally known as “pokies” or “poker machines”) in the world, and more than half of these are located in New South Wales, where most pubs and clubs have gaming rooms (labelled “VIP lounges” for legal reasons) where one can “have a slap” and go for the feature.
  • If none of this appeals, and you just have too much money in your pocket, every town and suburb in Australia has a TAB. Pick your sport, pick a winner, and hand over your money at the counter.

Gambling is illegal for under-18’s. This can often restrict entry to parts of pubs, clubs, and casinos for children.

Talk


Expect everyone you interact with in Australia to be able to speak English, whether it is their first language or not. Locals and more recent arrivals of all ages and backgrounds are expected to and usually do speak at least basic English, as well as the majority of tourists. As Australia is a multicultural society, you will notice the presence of many other languages and accents. Australians who were born in Australia or immigrated as children will speak English with the Australian accent. Australians who immigrated to Australia as adults generally will not have the Australian accent. The Australian accent has very little if not any geographic variation; although Australians sometimes have their own theories about geographical accents; for example Adelaide, Melbourne and North Queensland “accents”. In reality however, the Broad, General and Cultivated Australian accents which linguists accept all exist, can be found anywhere in Australia. Anywhere in the country you will find some people speak slower with broader accents and use more slang; often associated with regional areas, whilst many more Australians will have the General Australian accent; often associated with major urban areas, or the less common Cultivated accent: often associated with the highly educated, the latter two are both often easier to understand for visitors than the Broad accent. Australia is traditionally a land of immigrants, plus there are many people from all over the world working or studying in Australia, plus many tourists from overaeas. Because of this, Australians are very used to speaking with others whos first language is not English or who are not used to hearing the Australian accent. They will speak slower and clearer with you and avoid any local vocabulary. It is also worth noting many Australians of non-English speaking family backgrounds will generally always prefer to speak English with people outside their family. Even if they speak your language fluently at home or grew up with that language inside their home they will often pretend they cannot speak it with a visitor from that country.

Australian slang should not present a problem for tourists except possibly in some isolated outback areas. A few words and euphemisms that are considered offensive elsewhere are common vernacular in Australian speech. Fanny, as in the UK, means vagina and is not used widely. The word “thong” generally refers to flip-flops in Australia, and not necessarily a G-string as it does in most other places. Still, Australians are familiar enough with the differences to know what you mean, but they may still have a laugh at your expense.

Visitors who do not speak basic English will find communicating with Australians difficult, and should do some advance planning. There are some tour companies who specialise in offering package deals for Australian tours complete with guides who speak particular languages.

There are over a hundred Aboriginal languages still known and spoken by Aboriginal people. These languages are all different, and you won’t see an Aboriginal phrasebook in the travel bookshops. Many Aboriginal place names derive from Aboriginal languages that have been lost, and their meanings remain uncertain. Aboriginal people living in rural Aboriginal communities continue to speak their respective languages. The Torres Strait Islander people, who originate from a group of islands in northern Queensland near Papua New Guinea also continue to speak their own languages. Almost all Aboriginal people speak English as well, although some elders may not be fluent.

The standard sign language in Australia is Auslan (a contraction of “Australian Sign Language”), a member of the British Sign Language (BSL) family. Another closely related language is New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL). When interpreters are present for public events, they will use Auslan. Users of BSL or NZSL may be able to understand Auslan; the languages share a significant amount of vocabulary and syntax, plus the same two-handed manual alphabet. By contrast, users of languages in the French Sign Language family, which includes American Sign Language and Irish Sign Language, will not be able to understand Auslan. Much of the vocabulary and syntax are different, and those languages use a one-handed manual alphabet.

Buy


Currency

Australia uses the Australian dollar (AUD) and the currency is symbolised locally as “$”. There are 100 cents in every dollar.

No other currency is officially accepted for transactions in Australia. (Although it was not unusual to find some of the older New Zealand coins in your change from time to time, it is now practically unheard of since New Zealand completely overhauled and resized its coinage. It no longer matches the size of Australian coins.)

The coin denominations are 5c, 10c, 20c, 50c, $1 and $2. The Australian coins are large and heavy relative to their value. For example, the Australian ten cent coin is the size of a US 25 cent coin and the Australian fifty cent coin is among the largest circulating coins anywhere in the world by size. The note denominations are $5, $10, $20, $50 and $100. Australian notes are produced in plastic polymer rather than paper. If the total of a transaction is not a multiple of 5 cents the amount will be rounded to the nearest five cents if you are paying in cash. The exact amount will be charged if paying by card. Old paper notes or bronze 1c and 2c coins will be exchanged at a bank but will be difficult at shops.

The dollar is not pegged to any other currency, and is highly traded on world foreign exchange markets, particularly by currency speculators. Its exchange value to other currencies can be quite volatile, and 1-2% changes in a day are a reasonably common occurrences.

Money changers in Australia operate in a free market, and charge a range of flat commissions, percentage fees, undisclosed fees built into the exchange rate, and a combination of all three. Generally the best bet is to avoid airports and tourist centres when changing money, and use banks in major centres. Expect fees to vary considerably between institutions. Always get a quote before changing money.

When arriving in Australia with more than AUD$10,000 in any currency you must declare it to customs on the arrival card and complete paperwork you will be provided.

Cash

Cash dispensing Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) are available in almost every Australian town. Australian ATMs are deregulated and may impose a surcharge over what is charged by your bank or card issuer. The fees can vary between institutions and between locations, but are usually around $2. The ATM will display the charges and you will have the option to stop the transaction before you are charged. Check with your bank as to what additional fees they apply to withdrawals in Australia.

Dedicated currency exchange outlets are widely available in major cities, and banks can also exchange most non-restricted currencies. These exchange outlets – especially the ones at the airport – can charge 10% over the best exchange that can be obtained from shopping around. Australian banks usually offer an exchange rate around 2.5% from the current exchange midpoint. A flat commission of $5-8 can be charged on top. Some outlets advertise commission free exchange, usually accompanied by a worse rate of exchange. Don’t assume every bank will offer the same exchange. A simple calculation will let you know what offers the best deal for amount you wish to exchange. There are vouchers for commission free exchange at American Express available in the tourist brochure at Sydney Airport.

There is also no need to arrive in Australia with cash if you have a Cirrus, Maestro, MasterCard or Visa card: international airport terminals will have multiple teller machines that can dispense Australian currency with just the fees imposed by your bank plus the ATM fee.

Credit cards

Credit cards are widely accepted in Australia. Almost all large vendors such as supermarkets accept cards, as do many, but not all, small stores. Australian debit cards can also be used via a system known as EFTPOS. Any card showing the Cirrus or Maestro logos can be used at any terminal displaying those logos. The use of credit or debit cards for transactions under about $5.00 is generally discouraged, and some stores may even have a minimum purchase amount to use a credit or debit card. Note that the term EFTPOS is often used to mean cards of any kind – so a sign in a shop indicating an “EFTPOS minimum” refers to credit and debit cards of any kind.

VISA or MasterCard are commonly accepted and are both accepted everywhere credit cards are accepted. American Express and Diners Club are accepted at major supermarket and department store chains and many tourist destinations. JCB is only accepted at very limited tourist destinations. Discover is never accepted for internet-based payments, but if your card also carries the Diners Club logo, it will work at any physical store that accepts Diners Club.

Travelex sells prepaid Australian dollars credit/debit cards at airport locations with a 1% commission off what you load onto it. The big advantage here is you can bring Australian cash acquired at home through proper exchange channels and turn it into plastic with no exchange fees and minimal service charges without need for exchanging currency at the airport or carrying large amounts of cash everywhere. Excellent for security and you can get two cards with different numbers drawing from the same loaded money, allowing any two people to share a card on the same account. Other prepaid Australian dollar stored value cards bearing MasterCard or Visa emblems are available at larger post offices or grocery stores. Read terms and conditions closely, some can refund unused balances but only to an Australian bank account. Others you just have to spend it all in Australia or abroad. Travelex will refund unused balances for cash at airport locations for a $10.00 fee. Be careful using these cards for car hire. Agencies generally accept only cards with raised print for car hires and the name of the renter on it (prepaids do not have this). Even if you hire the car with a foreign card but settle the bill on return with a prepaid they often will not accept it, even with the other card as a backup. You will have to settle using the foreign card most of the time. Sometimes they don’t pay attention and you get away with it but don’t plan on it. Elsewhere these cards work everywhere MasterCard/Visa are accepted without incident.

Credit card surcharges are imposed at all car rental agencies, travel agents, airlines, and at some discount retailers and service stations. Surcharges are far more common for American Express and Diners Club (typically 2%-4%) than they are for VISA and Mastercard (typically 1.5%).

Costs

Dorm accommodation in a capital city is around $30, but can run as low as $15 in Cairns or cheaper backpacker centres. A basic motel in the country or in the capital city suburbs would cost around $100 for a double. City Centre hotel accommodation in capital cities can be obtained for around $150 upwards for a double. Formule 1/Motel 6 style hotels (which are not common) can be around $60-$90 for a double.

Car hire will cost around $65 a day. Public transport day passes from $10-20 per day depending on the city. Petrol is approximately 33% more expensive than the US, 10% more than Canada, and about 40% cheaper than Europe…. but can be even more expensive in remote areas where choices are few and the vendors more than a little enterprising to reflect additional delivery costs.

A cafe meal costs around $10-$15, and a main course in a restaurant goes from around $17 upwards.

A basic takeaway meal – a burger, fancy sandwich, or couple of slices of pizza would cost $5-10, a Big Mac costs $5.50, and you can usually grab a pie for around $4.50, or a sausage roll for $3.50. A takeaway pizza from Pizza Hut big enough to feed two costs around $10.

A middy/pot (285mL) of house beer will cost you around $6, and a glass of house wine around $6 in a low end pub. To take away, a case of 24 cans of beer will cost around $40, or a bottle of wine around $8. A pack of Marlboro Cigarettes goes for over $25 and is rising.

A standard 500ml bottle of soft drinks, such as Coca-Cola or Pepsi will cost around $3.00 in a large grocery store, $4.20 at a corner convenience store (called milk bars) or $5.20 or more at outback roadhouses. Cans run around $1.00 or more if bought in the 24 pack at grocery store. Bottled water isn’t much cheaper. You can make yourself feel better about it by buying brands that are not available in foreign countries, such as the delicious Kirk’s Dry Ginger Ale. Some American brands are not available. Ordinary coffee takeaway such as from a petrol station will run around $4.00 but usually comes with a biscuit too.

An airfare between neighbouring eastern capitals is around $120 each way but can get as low as $60 if you book at the right time, or around $350 to cross the country assuming that you are flexible with dates and book in advance. A train trip on the state run trains will usually cost slightly less. A bus trip, a little less again. A train trip on the private trains will be the most expensive way to travel.

There is usually no admission charge to beaches or city parks. Some popular National Parks charge between $10-20 per day (per car, or per person depending on the state) while more out of the way National Parks are free. Art Galleries and some attractions are free. Museums generally charge around $10 per admission. Theme parks charge around $70 per person.

Because of Australia’s high wages and taxes compared to other countries such the USA, you will find prices of things involving service such as restaurants especially high by comparison. A rule of thumb is the restaurants will cost close to double what you would expect of the same thing in the USA, and that holds for beverages also.

Haggling

Bargaining is uncommon in Australian stores, though vendors are usually willing to meet or beat a quote or advertised price from a competing retailer. It’s also worth asking for a “best price” for high-value goods or purchases involving several items. For example, it would not be unusual to get 10% off an item of jewelry that was not already reduced in price. The person you are dealing with may have limited authority to sell items at anything other than the marked price.

Tipping

Tipping is never compulsory and is usually not expected in Australia. Staff are seen to be paid an appropriate wage and will certainly not chase you down for a tip. It is acceptable to pay the amount stated on the bill. When Australians do tip, it will often be in the form of leaving the change from a cash payment (usually as a convenience so the change does not hang around loose on someone’s person – not as a gratuity), rather than a fixed percentage.

In a suburban or country restaurant where table service is offered, they will certainly take a tip of 5%-10% should you decide to leave one, but it is almost always not expected, and locals usually do not leave any. In a cafe or more informal restaurant, even with table service, and even in tourist centres, leaving a tip is unusual. Sometimes there is a coin jar by the cashier labelled ‘Tips’, but more often than not, diners do not leave one.

Tipping is also not expected in taxis, and drivers will typically return your change to the last 5 cents, unless you indicate that they should round the fare to the nearest dollar (it is not unusual for passengers to instruct the driver to round up to the next whole dollar).

Trading hours

Australia’s base trading hours are Monday-Friday 9AM-5PM. Shops usually have a single night of late night trading, staying open until 9PM on Fridays in most cities and on Thursdays in Brisbane and Sydney. Sunday trading is common but does not exist in all rural areas. Opening hours beyond these base hours vary by the type of store, by location, and by state. See the guides for more local information.

Major supermarket chains such as Coles and Woolworths and department stores like K-Mart and Target in main centres are generally open at least until 9pm. Smaller convenience stores like 7/11 are open 24 hours in major centres. Fast Food restaurant chains are commonly open 24 hours or at least very late.

Fuel/Service stations are open 24 hours in major centres, but often close at 6pm and on Sundays in country towns. Even in cities with populations exceeding 50,000 finding a 24 hour petrol station can be difficult, or at least should not be assumed to be easily found. Make sure to locate one in advance if you have an early morning flight with a rental car to return.

Australia’s weekend is on Saturday and Sunday of each week. Retail trading is now almost universal in larger cities on weekends, although with slightly reduced hours. Again, Western Australia is an exception with restrictions on large stores opening on Sundays. In smaller country towns shops are closed on Sundays and often also on Saturday afternoons.

Tourist-oriented towns and shops may stay open longer hours. Tourist areas within cities, such as Darling Harbour in Sydney has longer trading hours every night.

Australian banks are open Monday-Friday 09:00-16:00 only, often closing at 17:00 on Fridays. Cash is available through Automatic Teller Machines (ATM) 24 hours, and currency exchange outlets have extended hours and are open on weekends.

Tax

Australia has a sales tax known as the Goods and Services Tax or GST that applies to all goods and services except unprocessed foods, education and medical services. GST is always included in the price of any item you purchase rather than being added at the time of payment.

Receipts (tax invoices) will contain the GST amount, which is one eleventh of the total value of taxable supplies.

Sales tax refunds

If you buy items over $300 at one place within 60 days of departing the country, you can obtain a refund of the GST upon leaving Australia. As of April 2013 the items can be purchased in separate transactions, as long as the total comes to over $300 and they are all from the same store. Pack the items in hand luggage, and present the item(s) and the receipt at the TRS, after immigration and security when leaving Australia. Also allow an extra 15 minutes before departure. The refund payment can be made by either cheque, credit to an Australian bank account, or payment to a credit card. There is no refund available for services. You also cannot get a refund if you are too close to your flight departure time. A flight departure screen assists agents and they will refuse your transaction if your flight is on it. Check for current regulations about buffer time for flights if you want a GST refund.

Eat


Places to eat

Breakfast in Prahran

Breakfast in Prahran

  • Restaurants, Australians eat out frequently, and you will usually find one or two options to eat out even in small towns, with a wider range in larger towns and cities.
  • BYO restaurants, BYO stands for Bring Your Own (alcohol). In many of the urban communities of Australia you will find small low-cost restaurants that are not licensed to serve but allow diners to bring their own bottle of wine purchased elsewhere. This is frequently much cheaper than ordering a bottle of wine in a restaurant. Beer can be taken to some BYO restaurants, others allow only wine. Expect to pay a corkage fee which can vary from $2-15, or may be calculated by head. BYO is not usually permitted in restaurants that are licensed to sell alcohol.
  • Pubs, the counter lunch or pub meal is the name for a lunch served in the bar of a pub. Traditionally served only at lunchtime in the lounge. Today most pubs provide lunch and dinner and many have a separate bistro or restaurant. Meals of steak, chicken parmigiana, fish and chips, or nachos are common.
  • Clubs, clubs, such as bowling clubs, leagues clubs, RSLs are in many towns and cities. They are most common in the states of Queensland and New South Wales. Most allow visitors, and sometimes offer good value meals. Some offer attractive locations, like the water views from the Twin Towns in Tweed Heads.
  • Cafes, most towns and suburbs have a cafe or coffee shop, serving breakfast and light meals and cakes throughout the day. Not unusual for them to close before dinner.
  • Bakeries, usually a good place to buy bread rolls, a pie or a sausage roll. Some, like the Beechworth bakery, or the bakery in historic Gundagai offer an experience as well.
  • Fast food restaurants, McDonalds, Subway and KFC are common. Burger King is known as Hungry Jack’s. Red Rooster is a Australian chain, offering barbecued chicken and other mostly chicken-based items.
  • Take-away, milk bars (known as a Deli in SA) or take-away stores usually sell pies, barbecued (rotisserie) chicken, hamburgers, fish and chips, gyros, kebabs. Ubiquitous in every town and suburb.
  • Food courts, most shopping centres have a food court, even in country towns.
  • Picnic, the Australian climate is usually amenable to getting whatever food you can, and heading to the nearest park, river, lake or beach.
  • Barbecue, is a popular Australian pastime and many parks in Australia provide free barbecues for public use. Contrary to the stereotype, Australians rarely “Throw a shrimp on the barbie” (also, in Australia a shrimp is more commonly referred to as a prawn). Steaks, chops, sausages, chicken fillets, fish, kebabs are popularly barbecued.

Native foods

Try the pie

  • Kangaroo, if you fancy some, it is commonly available from most supermarkets and butchers shops. Head to the nearest park, and barbecue it until medium rare. Best not to overcook as it may become quite tough. It tastes much like beef. It occasionally makes it onto the menu in restaurants, mostly in tourist areas. Kangaroos aren’t endangered, and kangaroo grazing does far less damage to the sensitive Australian environment than hoofed animals, and far less carbon emissions too. If you are not ready to go vegetarian, kangaroo is the best environmental statement you can make while barbecuing.
  • Crocodile, meat from farms in the Northern Territory and Queensland is widely available around the top end, and occasionally elsewhere. At Rockhampton, the beef capital of Australia, you can see the ancient reptile on a farm while munching on a croc burger.
  • Emu, yes, you can eat the Australian Coat of Arms. Emu is low in fat, and available in some speciality butchers. Try the Coat of Arms pie in Maleny on the Sunshine Coast.
  • Bush tucker, many tours may give you an opportunity to try some bush tucker, the berries, nuts, roots, ants, and grubs from Australia’s native bush. Macadamia nuts are the only native plant to Australia that is grown for food commercially. Taste some of the other bush foods, and you will discover why.

Beyond cuisine

Vegemite, a salty yeast-based spread, best spread thinly on toast. If you aren’t up for buying a jar, any coffee shop will serve vegemite on toast at breakfast time. It may not even be on the menu, but the vegemite will be out the back in the jar next to the marmalade. If you do buy a jar, the secret is it to spread it very thin, and don’t forget the butter as well. It tastes similar to Marmite or Cenovis. Australians are quite used to the taste, and may spread the Vegemite very thick; but this is not recommended for first-timers.

Plate of Tim Tams

Plate of Tim Tams

The Tim-Tam, is a popular chocolate fudge-filled sandwich of two chocolate biscuits, all dipped in chocolate. You can buy a packet (or two) from any supermarket or convenience store. Tim-Tams are required to perform the Tim-Tam Slam manoeuvre. This requires biting off both ends of the Tim-Tam, then using it as a straw to drink your favourite hot beverage, typically coffee. The hot drink melts the fudge centre and creates an experience hard to describe. Finesse is needed to suck the whole biscuit into your mouth in the microseconds between being fully saturated and dissolving. Although performed by some Australians, the manoeuvre is rarely performed and the Tim-Tam is generally eaten by itself. During summer, Tim-Tams are often stored in the freezer, and eaten ice cold.

 

Lamington

Lamington

The lamington is a cube of sponge cake covered in chocolate icing and dipped in desiccated coconut. It’s named after Lord Lamington, who served as Governor of Queensland from 1896 to 1901. The home-baked form can be found at a local Saturday morning market, or you can buy one from a bakery if you are desperate. Avoid at all costs the plastic wrapped varieties sold in supermarkets.

 

The pavlova is a meringue cake with a cream topping usually decorated with fresh fruit. Served on special occasions, or after a lunchtime barbecue. Often the source of dispute with New Zealandover the original source of the recipe.

ANZAC biscuits are a mix of coconut, oats, flour, sugar and golden syrup. They were reputedly sent by wives and care organisations to world war soldiers in care packages, but the story is likely apocryphal. They are available from bakeries, cafes and supermarkets, and are popular in the lead up to ANZAC day (25 April).

Damper is a traditional soda bread that was baked by drovers and stockmen. It has basic ingredients (flour, water and perhaps salt) and usually cooked in the embers of a fire. It is not routinely available in bakeries and only commonly served to tourists on organised tours. Best eaten with butter and jam or golden syrup as it is dry and bland.

Pie floater

Pie floater

pie floater is a South Australian dish available around Adelaide. It is a pie inverted in a bowl of thick mushy pea soup. Similar pie variations are sometimes available in other regions.

 

Chiko roll is a deep-fried snack inspired by the egg roll or the spring roll. Despite the name, it contains no chicken. Its filling is boned mutton, vegetables, rice, barley, and seasonings. Its shell is thicker than an egg roll, meant to survive handling at football matches. Available anywhere you can buy fish and chips.

Other cuisines

Cuisines widely available in Australia, often prepared by members of the relevant culture, include:

  • Chinese, synonymous with the term “takeaway” in the past generations. Many Chinese restaurants still cater to takeaway addicts today, mostly of the Australianized Chinese variety, but major cities have small “Chinatowns” or suburbs with a large number of ethnic Chinese residents, that have excellent restaurants serving authentic Chinese food.
  • Thai, as above. Suburban Thai restaurants of indifferent quality are starting to replace the previous generation of Chinese restaurants of indifferent quality, but Australia also has excellent and authentic Thai restaurants.
  • Italian, the Italian community is one of the largest ethnic communities of non Anglo-Saxon origin in Australia, and they have contributed greatly to the cafe culture that has flourished across the major cities over the past few decades. Restaurants either serve Italian food that has been adapted to suit Australian tastes, or authentic regional Italian food, with the latter tending to be pricier and in more upmarket surrounds.
  • Greek, as above, and especially in Melbourne, which has the largest Greek population outside Greece.
  • Lebanese, especially in Sydney.
  • Indian, especially North Indian.
  • Japanese, including bento takeaway shops and sushi trains.
  • Vietnamese, although many are Vietnamese Chinese run and thus provide a more Chinese experience.
  • Asian fusion, refers generally to Asian-inspired dishes.

Vegetarian

Eating vegetarian is quite common in Australia and many restaurants offer at least one or two vegetarian dishes. Some will have an entire vegetarian menu section. Vegans may have more difficulty but any restaurant with a large vegetarian menu should offer some flexibility. In large cities you will find a number of vegetarian and vegan restaurants, as well as in the coastal backpacker-friendly towns along the east coast. The market town of Kuranda or the seaside towns of Byron Bay are a vegetarian’s paradise. In other regional areas vegetarians are often poorly catered for, but most towns will have a Chinese restaurant that will provide steamed rice and vegetables. Sydney and Melbourne in particular cater well for vegans and vegetarians with a large number of purely vegetarian restaurants, vegan clothing stores and vegan supermarkets.

Religious diets

People observing halal diets will easily be able to find specialist butchers in the capital cities, and will also find a number of restaurants with appropriate menus and cooking styles. People observing kosher diets can easily find kosher food in suburbs in Sydney and Melbourne that have a high amount of Jews (eg. Caulfield in Melbourne, Bondi in Sydney). In other cities it is very hard to find kosher food, and the little kosher food there is, is usually imported from Melbourne or Sydney, so it is very overpriced. Outside the capital cities, it will be much more difficult to find food prepared in a strict religious manner.

Markets

All of the capital cities and many regional towns in Australia host a “farmer’s market”, which is generally held each week in a designated area on a Saturday or Sunday. These markets mostly sell fresh fruits and vegetables, as hygiene standards in Australia forbid the selling of meat directly from market stalls. Butchers who set up shop at a farmer’s market would usually trade their wares from a display cabinet within their truck. The attraction of markets is the lower prices and freshness of the produce. The attraction for the traveller will be the cheap and excellent fruits on offer – depending on the region and season. In regional areas the market is usually held outside the town itself in an empty paddock or sports field, markets in capital cities are easier to reach but the prices are typically more in line with those you would find in supermarkets. See the destination guides for details.

Drink


Varieties

Beer

Drinking beer is ingrained in Australian culture. Although Fosters is promoted as an Australian beer overseas, it is rarely consumed by Australians in Australia, and is almost impossible to find. Beers are strongly regional and every state has its own brews: Coopers and West End in South Australia, Carlton and VB in Victoria, Tooheys in NSW, XXXX in Queensland, Boags and Cascade in Tasmania, and Swan in Western Australia. There are also local microbrew choices, which can be harder to find, but are often worth seeking out. A wide range of imported European and American bottled beers are available in all but the most basic pub.

Light (Lite) beer refers to lower alcoholic content, and not lower calories. It has around half the alcohol of full strength beer, and is taxed at a lower rate, meaning it is also cheaper than full strength beer.

Because Australians like their beer to stay cold while they drink it, draft beer glasses come in a multitude of sizes, so that you can drink a whole glass before it warms up in the summer heat. The naming of beer glasses varies widely from state to state, often in confusing ways: a schooner is 425 ml everywhere except South Australia, where it’s only 285 ml, a size that’s known elsewhere as a middy or pot, except in Darwin where it’s a handle, but in Adelaide a “pot” means a 570 ml full pint, and a pint means what a schooner does elsewhere, and… you get the idea. The local beers and the local descriptions are covered in detail in the state guides.

Bottle naming is a little easier: the standard sizes across Australia are the 375 ml stubby and the 750 ml long neck or tally. Cans of beer are known as tinnies and 24 of them make up a slabboxcarton, or a case.

Wine

Australia produces quality wine on a truly industrial scale, with large multinational brands supplying Australian bottleshops and exporting around the world. There are also a multitude of boutique wineries and smaller suppliers. Very good red and white wine can be bought very cheaply in Australia, often at less than $10 a bottle, and even the smallest shop could be expected to have 50 or more varieties to choose from.

The areas of the Barossa Valley, Hunter Valley,McLaren Vale, Clare Valley and Margaret River are particularly renowned for their wineries and opportunities for cellar door sampling, but northern Victoria and Mudgee, also have a large variety. You are never too far from a wine trail anywhere in southern Australia.

Try the local wines wherever you can find them, and ask for local recommendations. Try not to get taken in by the label, or the price tag. The best wine is rarely the one with the best artwork, or the most expensive price. However, it is probably wise to avoid the house wine if it comes straight from a cask (4-litre container). Wines at the cellar door are almost invariably sold at around 20% premium to the same wine in the shops in the local town.

If you still prefer overseas wines, the Marlborough region of New Zealand is usually well represented on wine lists and in bottle shops in Australia.

See also Grape grazing in Australia.

Spirits

Bundaberg Rum (Bundy) is an Australian dark rum particularly popular in Queensland and many Queenslanders will not touch any other brand of rum, while many other Australians will not touch Bundy. It is probably the most famous Australian made spirit, mass produced in Bundaberg and available everywhere.

You will have to search much harder to find other Australian distilled spirits, mostly from niche players, but there are distilleries in every state of Australia if you look hard enough. Drop into the Lark Distillery on the scenic Hobart waterfront precinct. Pick up a bottle of 151 East Vodka in Wollongong or after a few days in Kununurra you are definitely going to need an Ord River Rum.

Mixed drinks are also available, particularly vodka, scotch, bourbon and other whiskey mixers. Jim Beam bourbon is probably the most commonly drunk, so those from Kentucky should feel right at home. Spirits are also available as pre-mixed bottles and cans but are subject to higher taxation in this form, so it is cheaper to mix them yourself. Spirits are served in all pubs and bars, but not in all restaurants.

Legal aspects

The legal drinking age throughout Australia is 18 years. It is illegal to purchase alcohol for yourself if you are under 18 years of age. It is illegal to purchase alcohol on behalf of someone who is under 18 years of age. The only legally acceptable proof-of-age is an Australian drivers licence, state-issued proof-of-age card or a passport, and it would be wise to carry one if you want to purchase alcohol or tobacco and look under 25. It is illegal to go into a gambling area of a pub or club when under 18.

Often there is a lounge, restaurant or bistro area in a pub or club that permits under-age people provided they are accompanied by a responsible adult over 18 and don’t approach the bar or wander around. Some city pubs even have video games and playgrounds for children. Some country pubs have large open areas out in the back where kids can run and play.

In general, you can take alcohol (say a bottle of wine or beer) to consume at a park or beach. However, in the state of Queensland public consumption of Alcohol is illegal. Alcohol consumption is banned in some public places as ‘street drinking’. These are often indicated by signs and is particularly the case in parks and footpaths where public drunkenness has been a problem. However, if you are a family with your picnic basket and blanket out at lunchtime with a bottle of wine, you are unlikely to encounter any problems.

Alcohol can be purchased for consumption on premises only in licensed venues: pubs, clubs and many restaurants. You can purchase alcohol for private consumption in bottle shops, which are separate stores selling bottled alcohol. In some but not all states you can buy alcohol in supermarkets. In those states where you can’t, bottle shops and major supermarkets are often found in very close proximity. Although licensing laws and hours vary from state to state, and individual stores have different trading hours, as a rule of thumb, alcohol is generally available in towns to take-away seven days a week, between the hours of 8AM and 11PM, from bottle shops, supermarkets, licensed grocers/milk-bars and pubs. Outside of these hours though, it is almost impossible to buy alcohol to take home; so if you’re planning on a party at home, it’s a good idea to stock up and check on the local trading hours so you don’t run out at 00:30 with no opportunity to buy more. In the state of New South Wales, takeaway alcohol cannot be sold after 10pm. Alcohol is not available at petrol stations or 24-hour convenience stores anywhere in Australia.

Public drunkenness varies in acceptability. You will certainly find a great deal of it in close proximity to pubs and clubs at night time but much less so during the day. Public drunkenness is an offence but you would only likely ever be picked up by the police if you were causing a nuisance. You may spend the night sobering up in a holding cell or be charged.

Driving while affected by alcohol is both stigmatized and policed by random breath testing police patrols in Australia, as well as being inherently dangerous. Drink driving is a very serious offence in Australia, punishable by a range of mechanisms including loss of license. The acceptable maximum blood alcohol concentration is 0.05% in all states, often lower or not allowed for operators of heavy vehicles and young or novice drivers. Police officers are also empowered to randomly test drivers for the recent use of prohibited drugs. The operation of a motor vehicle while under the influence of prohibited drugs or alcohol will always result in arrest and a required court appearance many weeks from the date of arrest and it can comprehensively disrupt travel plans. Random breath testing is common early Saturday and Sunday mornings, and many people are caught the morning after.

A shout

Buying a round of drinks is a custom in Australia, as in many corners of the world. It is generally expected in a pub that when you arrive and make your first trip to the bar that you will offer to buy a drink for others you are drinking with. This is what’s known as a ‘shout’. In entering a shout you are expected to take turns buying drinks for everyone in your shout when it is your turn. It is considered poor etiquette to drink something much more expensive that what others in the shout are drinking. If you cannot keep pace during a shout you are still expected to buy a round of drinks when it is your turn and as such it is advisable to drink with people who pace themselves at a similar rate. If someone from outside the shout offers to buy you a drink politely decline and let them know you are already in a shout. Likewise if someone buys you a drink don’t be surprised if they expect one from you later on in the evening as it’s now your shout. If you don’t want to join a shout, or would like to drop out of one this can be awkward in some groups, however if you provide a viable reason such as having to drive or being on medication people will normally respect this explanation. It is considered very poor etiquette to leave before your shout.

 

The DigiMarCon Difference

Business and marketing professionals have a lot of choice in events to attend.
As the Premier Digital Marketing, Media and Advertising Conference & Exhibition Series worldwide
see why DigiMarCon stands out above the rest in the marketing industry
and why delegates keep returning year after year

Global Event Series

DigiMarCon is the Largest Digital Marketing, Media and Advertising Conference & Exhibition series in the world, with annual events held in all continents (North America, Latin America, Europe, UK, Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa) in 13 countries (United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Ireland, Netherlands, Spain, Brazil, Singapore, India, United Arab Emirates and South Africa), across 33 cities (New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Toronto, Vancouver, Montreal, Houston, Dallas, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, Washington DC, New Orleans, Atlanta, Detroit, Miami, Denver, San Diego, Phoenix, Las Vegas, Honolulu, London, Dublin, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Johannesburg, Cape Town, Dubai, Sydney, Auckland, Singapore and Sao Paulo). All DigiMarCon Events can be attended in-person or online. Wherever you are located there is a regional DigiMarCon event nearby you can attend.

5-Star Luxury Event Venues

DigiMarCon Conferences are held in top luxury 5-star event venues across the world such as; Royal Caribbean Cruise Ships, Olympic Stadiums, Marina Bay Sands Expo & Convention Centre and Wynn, JW Marriott, Marriott Marquis, Hyatt Regency, InterContinental, The Westin, Renaissance, Hilton, Conrad, W, Sheraton, Loews and Sofitel Hotel properties. Discount hotel room rates at each venue hotel means no hassle getting to and from the venue each day.

Extensive & Memorable Networking Experiences

Building relationships matter! At DigiMarCon Conferences we have more networking breaks on our program than others. On average there are 8 Networking breaks at each event giving delegates ample opportunities in a relaxed atmosphere to meet others over the 2-days at the event; from 1-hour round table networking luncheons to 3-hour dinner receptions. These networking breaks are set in picturesque locations to facilitate memorable experiences while fostering new relationships. Such experiences include enjoying cocktails and the Sunset over the Pacific Ocean on a private Ocean Terrace in Santa Monica, to being on the Sydney Olympic Stadium playing arena at night enjoying cocktails under the lights, to dining at the 360 Revolving Restaurant at the top of the CN Tower in Toronto for a Dinner Reception, enjoying cocktails on a private promenade overlooking Times Square in New York City, or having fun at the Dazzles Night Club onboard the Royal Caribbean Oasis of the Seas for a Farewell Party, etc.

Industry Thought Leaders from Leading Brands

DigiMarCon Keynotes, Panels and Master Classes are facilitated by the foremost thought leaders in the industry, from celebrity social media influencers to CMO’s from the largest Fortune 500 company brands that are disrupting the digital marketing, media and advertising industry, such as Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Amazon, Oracle, Adobe, eBay, Netflix and more. All presentations are pitch-free, and include actionable takeaways, case studies, strategies and tactics, ready to be applied when back in the office.

Premium Comfortable Meeting Spaces

At DigiMarCon Conferences you are never ‘left in the dark’…. literally, in a large room far away from the stage and speakers, crushed in tight theater seating, without even a table, while sitting in the dark. At DigiMarCon all delegates have premium meeting space in luxurious ballroom well-lit spaces, with comfortable seating with table enabling delegates to use their laptop to take notes with ample charging facilities onsite in a comfortable space to learn and thrive. All tables are situated close with direct view of the stage.

Value for Money & Generous Discounts

DigiMarCon Conferences are affordable to attend, from single-day event passes up to two-day VIP options at a fraction of the cost of other industry events. We offer significant discounts for early bird registrations. Additionally, on top of time-limited discount pass rates, because budgets are tight, we want to make sure all groups have a chance to attend DigiMarCon. For government employees, students, academic, startups, non-profit organizations and teams, we offer generous discounts off the prevailing registration price.

Collaborative Learning & Audience Participation

Attend DigiMarCon and you become part of the show! DigiMarCon Conferences tap into the talent of the room, drawing from the knowledge and experience of the professionals in the audience. All DigiMarCon events include regular interactive question and answer sessions with speakers and the audience ideal for collaboration, audience polls, along with ice-breaker and group exercises, steered by charismatic Emcees.

Meet the Speakers in Person

DigiMarCon Conferences put you right up and close with the speakers giving you the opportunity to meet these social media influencers which you follow in person. Speakers are never hidden in private speaker rooms away from the audience, they are in the auditorium sitting right beside you and participating.

Exceptional Customer Service

Attending a conference is a well-researched decision. There are many factors to consider such as location, time, venue, cost, speakers, content, etc. At DigiMarCon our results-obsessed Customer Service team are at your service before, during and after the event to help with your needs. It’s at the core of what we do — it drives our business. Offsite, we are ready to assist you via phone, ticket or chat. Onsite at our Conferences, friendly DigiMarCon staff serve as your hosts. They welcome your input and are happy to assist you.

TECHSPO Technology Expo

At all DigiMarCon Conferences is the co-located exclusive event TECHSPO Technology Expo, which showcases the new generation of technology and innovation, including; AdTech, MarTech, Internet, Mobile and SaaS technologies. Be inspired, amazed and educated on how these evolving technologies will impact your business for the better. Unlimited Access to TECHSPO Technology Expo is included with all DigiMarCon passes.

On Demand Library Access

DigiMarCon All Access & VIP Passes include a 12-month on demand access to hundreds of hours of DigiMarCon speaker keynotes, panels and master class presentations from recent DigiMarCon Conferences, including videos, slide decks and key takeaways, available on demand so you can watch what you want, when you want.

The Largest Digital Marketing, Media & Advertising Community

Attendees of DigiMarcon Conferences gain membership to an exclusive global Digital Marketing, Media and Advertising Community of over 500,000 worldwide subscribers to our award-winning digital marketing blog and over 100,000 members to the International Association of Digital Marketing Professionals (visit https://iadmp.org). This global community comprises of innovators, senior marketers and branders, entrepreneurs, digital executives and professionals, web & mobile strategists, designers and web project managers, business leaders, business developers, agency executives and their teams and anyone else who operates in the digital community who leverage digital, mobile, and social media marketing. We provide updates to the latest whitepapers and industry reports to keep you updated on trends, innovation and best practice digital marketing.

Safe, Clean & Hygienic Event Environment

The events industry has forever changed in a world affected by COVID-19. The health and safety of our guests, staff and community is our highest priority and paramount. The team at DigiMarCon is dedicated to ensuring a great experience at our in-person events, and that includes providing a safe, clean and hygienic environment for our delegates. Some of the key areas we have implemented safe and hygienic measures include;

  • Limiting Venue Capacities to allow for Social Distancing
  • Health and Safety Protocols
  • Safe Food and Beverages and Food-handling
  • Sanitation Stations with Hand Sanitizer and Wet Wipes Dispensers
  • Sanitation and Disinfection of Common and High-Traffic Areas
  • Physical Distancing Measures Between Attendees
  • Social Distancing Room and Seating Configurations
  • Non-Contact Thermal Temperature Scanning

Hybrid Events: Attend In-Person or Online

DigiMarCon has always been industry leaders of the Hybrid Event experience for years (a hybrid event combines a "live" in-person event with a "virtual" online component), no one needs to miss out on attending our events. Each DigiMarCon Conference can be attended in-person (with a Main Conference, All Access or VIP Pass) or online (with a Virtual Pass) giving attendees a choice for the experience they want to have. Attending virtually by viewing a Live Stream or On Demand enables participation by people who might be unable to attend physically due to travel or time zone constraints or through a wish to reduce the carbon footprint of the event. If you would like to meet the speakers, network with fellow marketing professionals at refreshment breaks, luncheons and evening receptions, check out the latest Internet, Mobile, AdTech, MarTech and SaaS technologies providers exhibiting then it is highly recommended to attend DigiMarCon in-person. As the largest Digital Marketing, Media and Advertising Conference series with events in 33 international cities worldwide, across 13 countries, there is bound to be a DigiMarCon Event near you to attend in-person if you can.

High-Profile Audience From Leading Brands

DigiMarCon Conference Series is the annual gathering of the most powerful brands and senior agency executives in your region. The Sharpest Minds And The Most Influential Decision Makers - Together for Two Days.

Who Attends Our Conferences
Brands • Agencies • Solution & Service Providers • Media Owners • Publishers • Entrepreneurs • Start-Ups • Investors • Government • Corporates • Institutes of Higher Learning

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Thank you for visiting our web site. This privacy policy tells you how we use personal information collected at this site. This privacy policy ("Privacy Policy") will tell you what information we collect about you and about your use of our Web site (“Site”). It will explain how we protect that information and what choices you have about how it is used. Please read this privacy policy before using the site or submitting any personal information. By using the site, you are accepting the practices described in this privacy policy. These practices may be changed, but any changes will be posted and changes will only apply to activities and information on a going forward, not retroactive basis. We encourage you to read this Privacy Policy carefully so that you will understand clearly how DigiMarCon, LLC ("DigiMarCon") may collect and use information provided by you.

  • What personally identifiable information of yours is collected;
  • What organization is collecting the information;
  • How the information is used;
  • With whom the information may be shared;
  • What choices are available regarding collection, use and distribution of the information;
  • What kind of security procedures are in place to protect the loss, misuse or alteration of information under our control; and,
  • How you can correct any inaccuracies in the information.

I. INFORMATION COLLECTED BY SEARCH EXPERIENCES OR ON SEARCH EXPERIENCES BEHALF

Personally identifiable information (Personal Information) is information that can be used to identify or contact you. We collect the Personal Information that you provide to us in two general and distinct ways: (1) when you choose to purchase various services or products offered by DigiMarCon and/or its affiliated business partners, or (2) when you choose to participate in surveys or send e-mails to DigiMarCon. This Site is not intended for use by persons under eighteen (18) years of age. DigiMarCon does not knowingly collect Personal Information from or about children under the age of eighteen (18).

You may view or use our Site without registering or submitting any Personal Information. In that case, the only information we collect will be non-personal information collected through the use of cookies or web beacons (see details below). However, in order to have access to certain products and services available on the Site, you are required to complete a registration form and provide other information, including Personal Information, reasonably necessary for us to provide the products and/or services for you.

We collect anonymous, non-confidential, and non-personal information when you use our site, send us e-mails, or respond to special promotions or newsletters that we may send to you from time to time. For example, cookies are small computer files that we transfer to your computer's hard drive that allow us to know how often someone visits a site and the activities they conduct while on that site (such as the chat rooms you visited, whether you submitted orders for services or products, etc.). Every computer is assigned a different cookie by DigiMarCon. The information collected by cookies helps us dynamically generate advertising and content on web pages or in e-mails specifically designed for you and also allows us to statistically monitor how many people are using our site and selected affiliated business partners sites, or are opening our e-mails. We may use cookie information to target certain advertisements to your browser or to determine the popularity of certain content or advertisements. It may be possible to link non-personal cookie information to Personal Information collected. You may be able to turn off cookies in your browser, but this may hinder our ability to provide you with certain services or your ability to enjoy certain features of the Site.

In limited circumstances we also may use "web beacons" to collect anonymous, non-personal information about your use of our Web site and the sites of selected affiliated partners, and your use of e-mails, special promotions or newsletters we may send to you from time to time. Web beacons are tiny graphic image files imbedded in a web page or e-mail that provide a presence on the web page or e-mail and send back to its home server information from the Users' browser. The information collected by web beacons allows us to statistically monitor how many people are using our site and selected affiliated business partners sites, or are opening our e-mails, and for what purposes. It may be possible to link non-personal web beacon information to Personal Information collected.

As noted in the discussions of cookies and web beacons (see above), we collect anonymous, non-personal information about your use of e-mails and newsletters that we may send to you from time to time. In some cases, when you click on a link or an advertisement in an e-mail or newsletter, your browser may be momentarily directed to the site of a third party which, acting on DigiMarCon behalf (see Disclosure to Web site Service and Content Contractors, below), notes or "counts" your response to the e-mail or newsletter before re-directing your browser to its proper destination. This re-direction process will not be apparent to you.

Sponsors, business partners or advertisers on the Site or in e-mails, special promotions or newsletters we may send to you from time to time may also use their own cookies or web beacons when you click on their advertisement or link to their site or service, or even if the advertisement simply appears on a page or in an e-mail that you are viewing. Some advertisers use companies other than DigiMarCon to serve their ads and to monitor users' responses to ads, and these companies ("Ad Servers") may also collect non-personal information through the use of cookies or web beacons on our Web site. In certain situations, information collection may be facilitated by momentarily directing your browser to the site of an Ad Server or other third party acting on behalf of the sponsor, business partner, or advertiser before re-directing your browser to its proper destination (e.g., back to DigiMarCon to show the ad, or to the advertiser's Web site); this re-direction process will not be apparent to you. We do not control these third parties' use of cookies or web beacons, or how they manage the non-personal information they gather through them. However, you should review the privacy policy of other sites you visit or link to from our site to understand how these other sites use cookies and how they use the information they collect through the use of cookies or web beacons on their own sites.

This Privacy Policy does not apply when you use DigiMarCon public forums if and when they become available. As a service to our users, DigiMarCon may feature chat rooms and bulletin boards where users can share information and support one another or where users can post questions for other users to answer. You should be aware that any information shared in a chat room, bulletin board, or other type of posting is public information and may be seen, disclosed to or collected by third parties that do not adhere to our Privacy Policy. You should think carefully before disclosing any personal information in any public forum.

This Privacy Policy does not apply to any information, such as business information, resumes, ideas, concepts or inventions sent to DigiMarCon by e-mail to the various DigiMarCon departments listed on the DigiMarCon Web site. If you want to keep business information, resumes, ideas, concepts or inventions private or proprietary, do not send them in an e-mail to DigiMarCon. We try to answer every e-mail in a timely manner, but are not always able to do so.

II. DISCLOSURE OF YOUR INFORMATION

Except as set forth in this Section II, or as specifically agreed to by you, DigiMarCon will employ best efforts to not use or disclose any Personal Information it gathers from you unless reasonably required in order to answer your questions, provide products and/or services you may request or purchase from DigiMarCon (such as, information we need to share with our credit card internet gateway), or to comply with governmental or internal record-keeping requirements as reasonably required. We may release Personal Information to third parties: (1) to comply with valid legal requirements such as a law, regulation, search warrant, subpoena or court order; or (2) in special cases, such as a financial threat to you or others. In the event that we are legally compelled to disclose your Personal Information to a third party, we will notify you unless doing so would violate the law or court order.

DigiMarCon may disclose Personal Information to its corporate subsidiaries or entities affiliated with DigiMarCon. Any Personal Information provided to DigiMarCon subsidiaries or entities affiliated with DigiMarCon will be treated by those subsidiaries and affiliated entities in accordance with the terms of this Privacy Policy.

DigiMarCon operations and maintenance contractors may sometimes have limited access to your Personal Information in the course of providing products or services to DigiMarCon. These contractors include vendors and suppliers that provide us with technology, services, and/or content related to operation and maintenance of our Web site. These contractors also may have access to your e-mail address to send newsletters or special promotions to you on our behalf or to send e-mails to you for purposes such as conducting market research on our behalf. Access to your Personal Information by these contractors is limited to the information reasonably necessary in order for the contractor to perform its limited function for DigiMarCon.

Certain content and products and services offered to you through our Web site are served on Web sites hosted and operated by a company other than DigiMarCon ("Third Party Contractor Web sites"). Therefore, if you purchase services or products through one of these Third Party Contractor Web sites, you will be purchasing it from the Third Party Contractor and not from DigiMarCon. Further, you should be aware that any information you disclose once you access these other sites is not subject to this Privacy Policy. DigiMarCon does not endorse and is not responsible for the privacy practices of these Third Party Contractor Web sites and, therefore, you should review the privacy policy posted on the other site to understand how that Third Party Contractor Web site collects and uses your Personal Information. Also, if you have reason to believe that you may be leaving our Web site and entering a Third Party Contractor Web site, you should be cautious about providing any Personal Information until you have reviewed the privacy policy posted on the other site.

DigiMarCon is a contractor and provides co-branded products and/or services to Web sites hosted and operated by companies other than DigiMarCon ("Channel Partner Web sites"). You can only access these co-branded content and products and/or services through the Channel Partner Web site. The co-branded DigiMarCon pages that you may access through a Channel Partner Web site have different registration processes and opportunities for information collection, and Personal Information that you provide on these pages may be shared with the Channel Partners. Each of these co-branded DigiMarCon sites has its own privacy policy posted on that site. Therefore, if you visit one of these co-branded DigiMarCon sites, please read the privacy policy that is posted on that site, as well as the individual privacy policy of the Channel Partner Web site.

In addition to the Third Party Contractor Web sites that you may access as described above, for your convenience there are links to Web sites operated by companies other than DigiMarCon that are not contractors who provide content, products, and/or services through our Web site ("Third Party Web sites"). These links may be found in advertisements, referenced within content, or placed beside the names or logos of sponsors or affiliated business partners of DigiMarCon. DigiMarCon does not disclose your Personal Information to these Third Party Web sites without obtaining your consent. DigiMarCon does not endorse and is not responsible for the privacy practices or content of these sites. If you choose to link to one of these Third Party Web sites, you should review the privacy policy posted on this other site to understand how that Third Party Web site collects and uses your Personal Information.

DigiMarCon may provide to third parties non-personal information about you that does not allow you to be identified or contacted and that is combined with the non-personal information of other users ("Aggregate Information"). For example, we might inform third parties regarding the number of users of our site and the activities they conduct while on our site. We might also inform a company that performs services or that provides products and/or services to DigiMarCon (that may or may not be a DigiMarCon business partner or an advertiser on our site) that "50% of our users live in the USA" or that "85% of our users have purchased products and/or services which can be downloaded from DigiMarCon Web site." Depending on the circumstances, we may or may not charge third parties for this Aggregate Information. We may not limit the third parties' use of the Aggregate Information.

DigiMarCon wants your Personal Information to remain as secure and accurate as possible. We implement appropriate measures and processes to protect your Personal Information and maintain its quality, such as encryption. Although we make reasonable efforts to protect your Personal Information from loss, misuse, or alteration by third parties, you should be aware that there is always some risk involved in transmitting information over the Internet. There is also some risk that thieves could find a way to thwart our security systems.

You will be given the option to opt in or sign up for recurring informational/promotional e-mails from DigiMarCon and/or third parties. You may opt out of receiving e-mails from or on behalf of DigiMarCon. You may opt out of receiving these e-mails and newsletters at any time. When you have received a newsletter you wish to stop, click on the "reply" button in your mail program, then type in the word "UNSUBSCRIBE" in the "Subject" field and send. DigiMarCon Customer Service will unsubscribe you.

You may also have the option of receiving e-mails or newsletters from third parties, participating in research or marketing surveys and participating in other activities. You may exercise these options by placing a check mark beside a statement that expresses a preference for receiving these communications or participating in these activities. You may change your decision at any time by following the directions regarding how to unsubscribe from these e-mails or newsletters.

This privacy statement applies only to the Site. The DigiMarCon Web site does contain links to other sites. Once you enter another Web site (whether through an advertisement, service, or content link), be aware that DigiMarCon has no control over and is not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage you to look for and review the privacy statements of each and every Web site that you visit through a link or advertisement on DigiMarCon Web site or any site that collects Personal Information from you.

You can always contact us in order to (1) delete your Personal Information from our systems, (2) update the Personal Information that you have provided to us, and (3) change your preferences with respect to marketing contacts or other activities, by e-mailing us at update@digimarcon.com. Such changes will not have any effect on other information that DigiMarCon maintains. If you have a complaint or problem you may e-mail us at support@digimarcon.com and the customer service department will forward your complaint to the appropriate internal DigiMarCon department for a response or resolution. We try to answer every e-mail in a timely manner but are not always able to do so.

You should be aware that it may not be technologically possible to remove each and every record of the information you have provided to DigiMarCon from our servers. The need to back-up our systems to protect information from inadvertent loss means that a copy of your Personal Information may exist in a non-erasable form that may be difficult or impossible for us to locate. Nevertheless, upon receiving your request, we will endeavor to delete all Personal Information stored in the databases we actively use for research and daily business activities, as well as other readily searchable media.

In the future and without notice to you, we may make significant or non-significant changes to our privacy policy affecting the use of the Personal Information you provide to us or other information we have gathered. You should visit our Web site from time to time and read our Privacy Policy then in effect to familiarize yourself with the current version.

Acceptance of Terms of Use of This Website. DigiMarCon, LLC ("Company") makes this website (the "Site"), including all information, documents, text, and graphics on the Site (collectively, the "Site Materials") as well as all software, products, and services offered and/or operated by Company and/or third parties through the Site (collectively, the "Products and Services"), available for your use subject to the terms and conditions set forth in this document, as may be revised from time to time by Company (collectively, the "Terms of Use"). BY ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE IN ANY WAY, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, EVALUATING, DOWNLOADING, PURCHASING, AND/OR USING ANY OF THE SITE MATERIALS OR PRODUCTS AND SERVICES DISPLAYED AND/OR OFFERED ON THIS SITE, OR BY MERELY BROWSING THIS SITE, YOU EXPRESSLY ACKNOWLEDGE THAT YOU HAVE READ AND AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF USE AND COMPANY'S PRIVACY POLICY, WHICH IS INCORPORATED HEREIN BY REFERENCE.

This Site is intended for lawful use by persons over eighteen (18) years of age. Company reserves the right to change the Terms of Use and other Company guidelines and policies (including, but not limited to, the Privacy Policy and the Registration Terms and Conditions) posted on the Site from time to time at its sole discretion, with or without notice, and the revised Terms of Use and other revised guidelines and policies shall be posted on the Site. Your continued use of the Site, or any Products and Services accessible through it, constitutes your acceptance of the revised Terms of Use, and your use of the Site will be subject to the most current version of the Terms of Use, policies, and guidelines posted on the Site at the time of such use. Therefore, you should periodically check the Terms of Use and policies on Company's home page to view the then current versions. If you breach any of the Terms of Use, your authorization to use this Site and any authorized use of Site Materials shall automatically terminate, any Site Materials downloaded or printed from the Site, whether authorized or unauthorized, must be immediately destroyed and, in certain cases, you may also be required to immediately stop using Company's Products and/or Services.

Certain Products and Services available on or through this Site are available only to persons who have purchased or subscribed to them under a paid or trial subscription agreement with Company or one of its affiliates (the "Subscribers") or persons invited by Company or one of its affiliates to evaluate such Products and/or Services, or who have requested the right to perform such an evaluation.

Intellectual Property; Limited License to Users. This Site, the Site Materials, and the Products and Services are protected by copyright, trademark, patent, and/or other intellectual property laws, and any unauthorized use of the Site, Site Materials, and/or Products and Services may violate such laws in addition to the Terms of Use. Except as expressly provided herein, Company and its licensors and suppliers do not grant any express or implied license to the Site, Site Materials, Products or Services. You agree not to copy, republish, download, transmit, modify, rent, lease, loan, sell, assign, distribute, license, sublicense, reverse engineer, or create derivative works based on, the Site, the Site Materials, or its Products and Services, except if expressly authorized herein.

Use of Services. When purchasing or using Products and/or Services on this Site that are offered by Company, you shall be subject to any agreements or licenses applicable to such Products and/or Services (“Specific Agreement”) and to the Terms of Use. Specific Agreements may contain terms and conditions in addition to those in the Terms of Use but all terms and conditions of the Specific Agreements and the Terms of Use shall apply. In the event of a conflict between the Terms of Use and any Specific Agreement, the Specific Agreement shall control with respect to your rights to the Product or Service.

In addition to the Products and Services offered by Company, this Site also advertises, offers, or makes available information, products and/or services provided by third parties (collectively, the "Third Party Materials"). Third Party products and/or services are governed by separate agreements or licenses with the Third Parties. Company offers no guarantees and assumes no responsibility or liability of any type with respect to the Third Party Materials, including any liability resulting from incompatibility between Third Party products and/or services and the products and/or services provided by Company. You agree that you will not hold Company responsible or liable with respect to the Third Party Materials or seek to do so.

Use of Software, Products, and Services. The software, Products and Services, and accompanying documentation that is made available through this Site, whether made available by downloading or otherwise, is the copyrighted and/or patented work of Company and/or its licensors and/or suppliers. Use of the software, Products and Services, and accompanying documentation is governed by the terms of the agreement or license that accompanies or is included with such software or Products and Services. You will not be able to download or install any software or Product that is accompanied by or includes a license agreement, and you will not be able to use any Service, unless you agree to the terms of the applicable license agreement. If you do not agree to such terms, you will not be able to use the software, Products or Services. Absent a license agreement that accompanies the software or Products and Services, use of the software or Products and Services will be governed by the Terms of Use. You agree that you will not decompile, reverse engineer, or otherwise attempt to discover the source code of the software and Products and Services available on this Site, and that you will not decompile or reverse engineer any of the Products and Services.

Use of Site Materials. Except as may be indicated to the contrary elsewhere on this Site, you may view, download, and print the Site Materials available on this Site subject to the following conditions:

  • The Site Materials may be used solely for personal, non-commercial, informational purposes.
  • The Site Materials may not be modified or altered in any way.
  • The Site Materials on the Site may not be distributed or sold, rented, leased, or licensed to others.
  • You may not remove any copyright or other proprietary notices contained in the Site Materials.
  • Company reserves the right to revoke the authorization to view, download, copy, and/or print the Site Materials available on this Site at any time, and any such use shall be discontinued immediately upon notice from Company.
  • Any rights granted to you by Company constitute a license and not a transfer of title.

Important Exceptions: Various sections of the Site (such as, by way of example only, demonstrations which show the use and/or utilization of Company Products and/or Services in the movie production industry, or showcase the work of creative professionals) belong to their creators (the "Third Party Content"), may be protected by copyright or other proprietary laws, and are for display and demonstration purposes only. Accordingly, you may not download, use, copy or print Third Party Content unless there is a notice associated with the Third Party Content work expressly permitting downloading, use, copy and/or printing. The rights specified above i.e., the right to view, download, and print the Site Materials and Third Party Content available on this Site are not applicable to the design or layout of this Site. Elements of this Site are protected by copyright and other laws and may not be copied, reproduced or imitated in whole or in part.

Trademark Information. The trademarks, logos, and service marks ("Marks") displayed on this Site are the property of Company or third parties. You are not permitted to use the Marks without the prior written consent of the owner of the Mark. DigiMarCon is a trademark of Company.

Submission of Information. Information submitted through this Site may be accessed and used by a Company service provider. Although Company and Company's service provider (Paypal, Inc) each take certain steps in an effort to protect the electronic transmission of credit card numbers or social security numbers ("Financial Information") that you submit through the Site, Company does not guarantee the security of any information transmitted to or from the Site. You understand and agree to assume the security risk for any information you provide using the Site.

Other than the Financial Information, do not send any confidential or proprietary information through the Site. Except for the Financial Information or personally identifiable information relative to you, any information you do send through the Site will be deemed NOT to be confidential ("Non-Confidential Information"). For any Non-Confidential Information you do send, post or submit, you hereby grant Company and its affiliates, successors, and assigns an unrestricted, royalty-free, irrevocable, worldwide license to use, reproduce, display, perform, modify, transmit and distribute the Non-Confidential Information, and agree that Company is free to use any ideas, concepts, know-how or techniques that you send Company for any purpose and in any manner whatsoever without compensation to you or any other person sending the Non-Confidential Information. You represent and warrant that you own or otherwise control all of the rights to the Non-Confidential Information and that public posting and use of your content by Company or its affiliates, successors or assigns, will not infringe or violate the rights of any third party. If you submit personally identifiable information via the Site, Company will treat it in accordance with the Privacy Policy found on the home page of this Site and our service provider will treat it in accordance with its Privacy Policy, which can be found here: https://cms.paypal.com/us/cgi-bin/marketingweb?cmd=_render-content&content_ID=ua/Privacy_full&am/

You are prohibited from posting or transmitting to or from the Site any unlawful, threatening, libelous, defamatory, obscene, scandalous, inflammatory, pornographic, or profane material, or any other material that could give rise to any civil or criminal liability under the law.

User Conduct. In using the Site, including all Products and Services available through it, you agree:

  • not to disrupt or interfere with any other user's use or enjoyment of the Site or affiliated or linked sites;
  • not to upload or otherwise transmit through the Site any viruses or other harmful, disruptive, or destructive files;
  • not to create a false identity;
  • not to use or attempt to use another's account, password, services, or systems;
  • not to attempt to transmit any content which you are not authorized to transmit; and
  • not to disrupt or interfere with the security of, or otherwise cause harm to, the Site, or any Products and Services, Site Materials, system resources, accounts, passwords, servers, or networks connected to or accessible through the Site or any affiliated or linked sites.

Managing Content and Communications. Although it is not our intention to do so, Company reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to delete or remove your content from the Site and to restrict, suspend, or terminate your access to all or part of this Site, at any time if we have cause to do so (including, without limitation, our good faith belief that you have violated the Terms of Use) without prior notice or liability. In addition, Company reserves the right to delete or remove your content if the applicable subscription or license has expired or lapsed or if Company has a good faith belief that you have violated these Terms of Use or any law or regulation, or that such deletion or removal is necessary to comply with the law or to protect the rights of Company or others. Company may, but is not obligated to, monitor or review (i) any areas on the Site where users transmit content, and (ii) the substance of any content. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Company will have no liability related to your content arising under the laws of copyright, libel, privacy, obscenity, or otherwise. Company also disclaims all liability with respect to the misuse, loss, modification, destruction, or unavailability of any of your content.

Use and Protection of Account Number and Password. You are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of your account number, account name, and/or password, where and when applicable to the Site. You are responsible for damages resulting from all uses of your account number, account name, and/or password, whether actually or expressly authorized by you, unless access to your account number, account name, and/or password was obtained through no fault or negligence of your own.

WARRANTIES AND DISCLAIMERS. EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED OTHERWISE IN A WRITTEN AGREEMENT BETWEEN YOU AND COMPANY, THIS SITE, AND ALL SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES ACCESSIBLE THROUGH THIS SITE ARE PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, PERFORMANCE, OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR THE WARRANTY OF NON-INFRINGEMENT. WITHOUT LIMITING THE FOREGOING,COMPANY MAKES NO WARRANTY THAT (i) THE SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES WILL MEET YOUR REQUIREMENTS; (ii) THE SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED, TIMELY, SECURE, ALWAYS AVAILABLE, OR ERROR-FREE; (iii) THE RESULTS THAT MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE USE OF THE SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES WILL BE EFFECTIVE, ACCURATE, OR RELIABLE; (iv) THE QUALITY OF ANY SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES PURCHASED OR ACCESSIBLE BY YOU THROUGH THE SITE WILL MEET YOUR EXPECTATIONS; AND (v) ANY ERRORS IN THE PRODUCTS AND SERVICES OBTAINED FROM OR USED THROUGH THE SITE, OR ANY DEFECTS IN THE SITE, THE SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES, WILL BE CORRECTED.

THIS SITE COULD INCLUDE TECHNICAL OR OTHER MISTAKES, INACCURACIES, OR TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS.COMPANY MAY MAKE CHANGES TO THE SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND/OR SERVICES AT THIS SITE, INCLUDING THE PRICES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF ANY PRODUCTS AND SERVICES LISTED HEREIN, AT ANY TIME WITHOUT NOTICE. THE SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND/OR SERVICES AT THIS SITE MAY BE OUT OF DATE, AND COMPANY MAKES NO COMMITMENT TO UPDATE SUCH SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND/OR SERVICES. YOU UNDERSTAND AND ACKNOWLEDGE THAT (i) COMPANY DOES NOT CONTROL, ENDORSE, OR ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY CONTENT, PRODUCTS, OR SERVICES OFFERED AND/OR PERFORMED BY THIRD PARTIES THROUGH THE SITE, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THOSE PROVIDED BY THIRD PARTY VENDORS OR THOSE ACCESSIBLE THROUGH LINKS ON THE SITE; (ii) COMPANY MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WHATSOEVER ABOUT ANY SUCH THIRD PARTIES, THEIR CONTENT, PRODUCTS, OR SERVICES; (iii) ANY DEALINGS YOU MAY HAVE WITH SUCH THIRD PARTIES ARE AT YOUR OWN RISK; AND (iv) COMPANY SHALL NOT BE LIABLE OR RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY CONTENT, PRODUCTS, OR SERVICES OFFERED AND/OR PERFORMED BY THIRD PARTIES.

THE USE, INSTALLATION, AND/OR DOWNLOADING OF ANY SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES THROUGH THE SITE IS DONE AT YOUR OWN DISCRETION AND RISK AND WITH YOUR AGREEMENT THAT YOU WILL BE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE TO YOUR COMPUTER OR COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS OR SERVICES, LOSS OF DATA, OR OTHER HARM THAT RESULTS FROM SUCH ACTIVITIES. COMPANY ASSUMES NO LIABILITY FOR ANY COMPUTER VIRUS OR OTHER SIMILAR SOFTWARE CODE THAT IS INSTALLED, TRANSMITTED, OR DOWNLOADED TO YOUR COMPUTER OR COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS OR SERVICES FROM THE SITE OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES APPEARING ON AND/OR OFFERED THROUGH THE SITE. NO ADVICE OR INFORMATION, WHETHER ORAL OR WRITTEN, OBTAINED BY YOU FROMCOMPANY OR THROUGH OR FROM THE SITE SHALL CREATE ANY WARRANTY NOT EXPRESSLY STATED IN THE TERMS OF USE.

SOME STATES OR JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES OR LIMITATIONS ON HOW LONG AN IMPLIED WARRANTY MAY LAST, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATIONS MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. TO THE EXTENT PERMISSIBLE, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES ARE LIMITED TO NINETY (90) DAYS.

LIMITATION OF LIABILITY. IN NO EVENT INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, NEGLIGENCE, SHALL COMPANY, ITS SUBSIDIARIES, AFFILIATES, AGENTS, OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, SHAREHOLDERS, ATTORNEYS, EMPLOYEES, PARTNERS, LICENSORS, OR SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE TO YOU OR ANY THIRD PARTY FOR ANY SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THOSE RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS, WHETHER OR NOT COMPANY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES OR SUCH DAMAGES ARE FORESEEABLE, AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OF OR THE INABILITY TO USE THIS SITE, THE SITE MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, AND SERVICES, THE STATEMENTS OR ACTIONS OF ANY THIRD PARTY ON OR THROUGH THE SITE, ANY DEALINGS WITH VENDORS OR OTHER THIRD PARTIES, ANY UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS TO OR ALTERATION OF YOUR TRANSMISSIONS OR DATA, ANY INFORMATION THAT IS SENT OR RECEIVED OR NOT SENT OR RECEIVED, ANY FAILURE TO STORE OR LOSS OF DATA, FILES, OR OTHER CONTENT, ANY SERVICES AVAILABLE THROUGH THE SITE THAT ARE DELAYED OR INTERRUPTED, OR ANY WEB SITE REFERENCED OR LINKED TO FROM THIS SITE.

SOME JURISDICTIONS PROHIBIT THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF LIABILITY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES. ACCORDINGLY, THE LIMITATIONS AND EXCLUSIONS SET FORTH ABOVE MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.

International Users. This Site can be accessed from countries around the world and may contain references to Company Products and Services that are not available in your country. These references do not imply that Company intends to announce or provide such Products or Services in your country. The Site is controlled, operated, and administered by Company from its offices within the United States of America. Company makes no representation that the Site, or the Site Materials, Products, and Services appearing on or available through the Site, are appropriate, legal, or available for use at other locations outside the United States, and access to the Site from territories where the Site or any of the Site Materials, Products, and/or Services are illegal is prohibited. If you access the Site from a location outside the United States, you are responsible for compliance with all applicable laws.

Indemnity and Liability. You agree to indemnify and hold Company, and its subsidiaries, affiliates, officers, directors, shareholders, attorneys, agents, employees, licensors, suppliers, co-branders or other partners harmless from any claim or demand, including reasonable attorneys' fees and damages of any kind, made by any third party due to or arising out of content you submit to Company and/or transmit through the Site (including, without limitation, any content or computer viruses), your use of the Site or any Site Materials, your connection to the Site, your violation of the Terms of Use, the actions of any of your employees or agents in conjunction with the Site, or your violation of any rights of another person or entity or any and all laws and regulations applicable to these Terms of Use, and/or your use of Company's Products and/or Services.

Governing Law and Jurisdiction. This Site (excluding linked sites) is controlled by Company from its offices within the State of Delaware, United States of America. By accessing this Site, you and Company agree that all matters relating to your access to, or use of, this Site shall be governed by the statutes and laws of the State of Delaware, without regard to the conflicts of laws principles thereof. You and Company also agree and hereby submit to the exclusive personal jurisdiction and venue of the state and federal courts located in Wilmington, Delaware, USA.

General. The Terms of Use and the other guidelines, policies, licenses, and disclaimers posted on the Site constitute the entire agreement between Company and you with respect to your use of the Site. If for any reason a court of competent jurisdiction finds any provision of the Terms of Use or portion thereof to be unenforceable, that provision shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to effect the intent of the parties as reflected by that provision, and the remainder of the Terms of Use shall continue in full force and effect. Any failure by Company to enforce or exercise any provision of the Terms of Use or related right shall not constitute a waiver of that right or provision. The section titles used in the Terms of Use are purely for convenience and carry with them no legal or contractual effect.

DigiMarCon Melbourn - Inquiries

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