Australia’s climate is governed largely by its size and by the hot, sinking air of the subtropical high pressure belt. This moves north and south with the seasons. But it is variable, with frequent droughts lasting several seasons—thought to be caused in part by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The climate varies widely due to its large geographical size, but by far the largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid. Only the south-east and south-west corners have a temperate climate and moderately fertile soil. The northern part of the country has a tropical climate, varied between tropical rainforests, grasslands and desert.
Because Australia is a small continent, separated from polar regions by the Southern Ocean, it is not subject to the movements of frigid polar air that sweep over the continents in the northern hemisphere during winter. Consequently, its winter is relatively mild, so that there aren’t any great contrast between summer and winter temperatures that is present in the northern continents. Yet in many parts of the country, seasonal highs and lows can be considerable: temperatures have ranged from above 50 °C (122 °F) to well below zero. Nonetheless, minimum temperatures are moderated.
The El Niño-Southern Oscillation is associated with seasonal abnormality in many areas in the world. Australia is one of the continents most affected and experiences extensive droughts alongside considerable wet periods. Occasionally a dust storm will blanket a region and there are reports of the occasional tornado. Tropical cyclones, heat waves, bushfires and frosts in the country are also associated with the Southern Oscillation. Rising levels of salinity and desertification in some areas is ravaging the landscape.
Climate change in Australia is a highly contentious issue. Temperatures in the country have risen following an increasing trend of global warming between the years of 1910 to 2004 by approximately 0.7 °C. Overnight minimum temperatures have warmed more rapidly than daytime maximum temperatures in recent years. The late-20th century warming has been largely attributed to the increased greenhouse effect. According to the Bureau of Meteorology, 80% of the land has less than 600 mm (24 in) of rainfall per year and 50% has even less than 300 mm (12 in). As a whole, Australia has a very low annual average rainfall of 419 mm (16 in).
The highest maximum temperature recorded in the ACT was 42.8 °C (109.0 °F) at Acton on 11 January 1939. The lowest minimum temperature was −14.6 °C (5.7 °F) at Gudgenby on 11 July 1971.
The warmest region is the north-west part of the state, where summers are very hot, and winters cooler and drier. The weather in the northeast region of the state, or the North Coast, bordering Queensland, is hot and humid in the summer, with a rainfall peak, and mild in winter with more sunshine, and little seasonal temperature difference. The Northern Tablelands, which are also on the north coast, have relatively mild summers and cold winters, due to their high elevation on the Great Dividing Range.
The coldest region is the Snowy Mountains where the snow and frost continues for quite long period during the winter months. The Blue Mountains, Southern Tablelands and Central Tablelands, which are situated on the Great Dividing Range, have mild to warm summers and cold winters, although not as severe as those in the Snowy Mountains. Interestingly, some places situated in or around the Range have recorded freezing and near-freezing lows in nearly every month of the year, a feat not experienced in many other places of similar latitude and altitude in the northern hemisphere.
The highest maximum temperature recorded was 49.8 °C (121.6 °F) at Menindee in the state’s west on 10 January 1939. The lowest minimum temperature was −23.0 °C (−9.4 °F) at Charlotte Pass on 29 June 1994 in the Snowy Mountains. This is also the lowest temperature recorded in the whole of Australia excluding Australian Antarctic Territory.
Rainfall varies throughout the state. The far north-west receives the least, less than 180 mm (7 in) annually, while the east receives between 600 to 1,200 mm (24 to 47 in) of rain.
|City||January Max. Temp||January Min. Temp||July Max. Temp||July Min. Temp||No. Clear days||Annual Rainfall|
|Sydney||26 °C (79 °F)||19 °C (66 °F)||16 °C (61 °F)||8 °C (46 °F)||104||1,222 mm (48 in)|
|Penrith||31 °C (88 °F)||18 °C (64 °F)||18 °C (64 °F)||5 °C (41 °F)||103||696 mm (27 in)|
|Wollongong||26 °C (79 °F)||18 °C (64 °F)||17 °C (63 °F)||8 °C (46 °F)||107||1,346 mm (53 in)|
|Coffs Harbour||27 °C (81 °F)||19 °C (66 °F)||19 °C (66 °F)||8 °C (46 °F)||122||1,679 mm (66 in)|
|Armidale]||27 °C (81 °F)||13 °C (55 °F)||12 °C (54 °F)||0 °C (32 °F)||106||791 mm (31 in)|
|Orange||26 °C (79 °F)||12 °C (54 °F)||9 °C (48 °F)||1 °C (34 °F)||100||898 mm (35 in)|
|Wagga Wagga||32 °C (90 °F)||16 °C (61 °F)||13 °C (55 °F)||3 °C (37 °F)||124||566 mm (22 in)|
|Broken Hill||33 °C (91 °F)||19 °C (66 °F)||15 °C (59 °F)||5 °C (41 °F)||137||245 mm (10 in)|
|Average monthly maximum
temperature in Northern Territory
|January||31.8 °C (89.2 °F)||36.4 °C (97.5 °F)|
|February||31.4 °C (88.5 °F)||35.1 °C (95.2 °F)|
|March||31.9 °C (89.4 °F)||32.7 °C (90.9 °F)|
|April||32.7 °C (90.9 °F)||28.2 °C (82.8 °F)|
|May||32.0 °C (89.6 °F)||23.0 °C (73.4 °F)|
|June||30.6 °C (87.1 °F)||19.8 °C (67.6 °F)|
|July||30.5 °C (86.9 °F)||19.7 °C (67.5 °F)|
|August||31.3 °C (88.3 °F)||22.5 °C (72.5 °F)|
|September||32.5 °C (90.5 °F)||27.2 °C (81.0 °F)|
|November||33.2 °C (91.8 °F)||31.0 °C (87.8 °F)|
|November||33.3 °C (91.9 °F)||33.6 °C (92.5 °F)|
|December||32.6 °C (90.7 °F)||35.4 °C (95.7 °F)|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
The Northern Territory has two distinctive climate zones. The northern end, including Darwin, has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw) with high humidity and two seasons, the wet (November to April) and dry season (May to November). During the dry season nearly every day is warm and sunny, and afternoon humidity averages around 30%. There is very little rainfall between May and September. In the coolest months of June and July, the daily minimum temperature may dip as low as 14 °C (57 °F), but very rarely lower, and frost has never been recorded.
The wet season is associated with tropical cyclones and monsoon rains. The majority of rainfall occurs between December and March (the Southern Hemisphere summer), when thunderstorms are common and afternoon relative humidity averages over 70% during the wettest months. On average more than 1,570 mm (62 in) of rain falls in the north. Thunderstorms can produce spectacular lightning displays.
The central region is the desert centre of the country, which includes Alice Springs and Uluru, and is arid or semi-arid with little rain usually falling during the hottest months from November to March. Its seasons are more defined than the northern parts, with summers being very hot, where temperatures often exceed 35 °C (95 °F) on average and winters relatively cool with average minimum temperatures dipping as low as 5 °C (41 °F), with a few frosty nights. Central Australia receives less than 250 mm (10 in) of rain per year.
The highest maximum temperature recorded in the territory was 48.3 °C (118.9 °F) at Finke on 1 and 2 January 1960. The lowest minimum temperature was −7.5 °C (18.5 °F) at Alice Springs on 12 July 1976.
There are five predominant climatic zones in Queensland, based on temperature and humidity:
However, most of the Queensland populace experience two weather seasons: a winter period of rather warm temperatures and minimal rainfall and a sultry summer period of hot, sticky temperatures and higher levels of rainfall.
The highest maximum temperature observed in the state is 49.5 °C (121.1 °F) at Birdsville on 24 December 1972. The temperature of 53.1 °C (127.6 °F) at Cloncurry on 16 January 1889 is not considered official; the figure quoted from Birdsville is the next highest, so that record is considered as being official.
The lowest minimum temperature is −10.6 °C (12.9 °F) at Stanthorpe on 23 June 1961 and at The Hermitage on 12 July 1965.
|City||January Max. Temp||January Min. Temp||July Max. Temp||July Min. Temp||No. Clear days||Annual Rainfall|
|Brisbane||30 °C (86 °F)||21 °C (70 °F)||22 °C (72 °F)||10 °C (50 °F)||123||1,022 mm (40 in)|
|Gold Coast||29 °C (84 °F)||22 °C (72 °F)||21 °C (70 °F)||12 °C (54 °F)||n/a||1,273 mm (50 in)|
|Mackay||30 °C (86 °F)||24 °C (75 °F)||21 °C (70 °F)||13 °C (55 °F)||123||1,610 mm (63 in)|
|Cairns||31 °C (88 °F)||24 °C (75 °F)||26 °C (79 °F)||17 °C (63 °F)||90||1,991 mm (78 in)|
|Townsville||31 °C (88 °F)||24 °C (75 °F)||25 °C (77 °F)||14 °C (57 °F)||121||1,132 mm (45 in)|
|Toowoomba||28 °C (82 °F)||17 °C (63 °F)||16 °C (61 °F)||5 °C (41 °F)||114||952 mm (37 in)|
|Rockhampton||32 °C (90 °F)||22 °C (72 °F)||23 °C (73 °F)||10 °C (50 °F)||116||812 mm (32 in)|
|Mt Isa||37 °C (99 °F)||24 °C (75 °F)||25 °C (77 °F)||9 °C (48 °F)||175||462 mm (18 in)|
South Australia’s mean temperature range is 29 °C (84 °F) in January and 15 °C (59 °F) in July. Daily temperatures in parts of the state in January and February can be up to 48 °C (118 °F). The highest maximum temperature was recorded as 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) at Oodnadatta on 2 January 1960, which is the highest official temperature recorded in Australia. The lowest minimum temperature was −8.0 °C (17.6 °F) at Yongala on 20 July 1976.
|City||January Max. Temp||January Min. Temp||July Max. Temp||July Min. Temp||No. Clear days||Annual Rainfall|
|Adelaide||29 °C (84 °F)||17 °C (63 °F)||15 °C (59 °F)||7 °C (45 °F)||87||551 mm (22 in)|
|Mount Gambier||25 °C (77 °F)||11 °C (52 °F)||13 °C (55 °F)||5 °C (41 °F)||40||710 mm (28 in)|
|Whyalla||30 °C (86 °F)||18 °C (64 °F)||17 °C (63 °F)||5 °C (41 °F)||63||267 mm (11 in)|
|Port Augusta||34 °C (93 °F)||19 °C (66 °F)||18 °C (64 °F)||5 °C (41 °F)||142||218 mm (9 in)|
|Oodnadatta||38 °C (100 °F)||23 °C (73 °F)||20 °C (68 °F)||6 °C (43 °F)||182||176 mm (7 in)|
The highest recorded maximum temperature in Tasmania was 42.2 °C (108.0 °F) at Scamander on 30 January 2009, during the 2009 south-eastern Australia heat wave. Tasmania’s lowest recorded minimum temperature was −13 °C (8.6 °F) on 30 June 1983, at Butlers Gorge, Shannon, and Tarraleah.
|City||January Max. Temp||January Min. Temp||July Max. Temp||July Min. Temp||No. Clear days||Annual Rainfall|
|Hobart||22 °C (72 °F)||12 °C (54 °F)||12 °C (54 °F)||5 °C (41 °F)||41||615 mm (24 in)|
|Launceston||25 °C (77 °F)||11 °C (52 °F)||12 °C (54 °F)||2 °C (36 °F)||50||630 mm (25 in)|
|Devonport||21 °C (70 °F)||12 °C (54 °F)||13 °C (55 °F)||5 °C (41 °F)||56||773 mm (30 in)|
|Strahan||21 °C (70 °F)||11 °C (52 °F)||12 °C (54 °F)||5 °C (41 °F)||16||1,544 mm (61 in)|
|Average monthly maximum
temperature in Victoria
|January||25.8 °C (78.4 °F)||32.8 °C (91.0 °F)|
|February||25.8 °C (78.4 °F)||32.7 °C (90.9 °F)|
|March||23.8 °C (74.8 °F)||29.3 °C (84.7 °F)|
|April||20.2 °C (68.4 °F)||24.1 °C (75.4 °F)|
|May||16.6 °C (61.9 °F)||19.6 °C (67.3 °F)|
|June||14.0 °C (57.2 °F)||16.0 °C (60.8 °F)|
|July||13.4 °C (56.1 °F)||15.4 °C (59.7 °F)|
|August||14.9 °C (58.8 °F)||17.7 °C (63.9 °F)|
|September||17.2 °C (63.0 °F)||21.1 °C (70.0 °F)|
|November||19.6 °C (67.3 °F)||25.0 °C (77.0 °F)|
|November||21.8 °C (71.2 °F)||29.0 °C (84.2 °F)|
|December||24.1 °C (75.4 °F)||31.7 °C (89.1 °F)|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Climate diagrams of Victoria.|
Victoria has a varied climate despite its small size. It ranges from semi-arid and hot in the north-west, to temperate and cool along the coast. Victoria’s main land feature, the Great Dividing Range, produces a cooler, mountain climate in the centre of the state.
Victoria’s southernmost position on the Australian mainland means it is cooler and wetter than other mainland states and territories. The coastal plain south of the Great Dividing Range has Victoria’s mildest climate. Air from the Southern Ocean helps reduce the heat of summer and the cold of winter. Melbourne and other large cities are located in this temperate region.
The Mallee and upper Wimmera are Victoria’s warmest regions with hot winds blowing from nearby deserts. Average temperatures top 30 °C (86 °F) during summer and 15 °C (59 °F) in winter. Victoria’s highest maximum temperature of 48.8 °C (119.8 °F) was recorded in Hopetoun on 7 February 2009, during the 2009 south-eastern Australia heat wave. A screentemperature of 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) was recorded on 7 January 1906 in Mildura.
The Victorian Alps in the north-east are the coldest part of Victoria. The Alps are part of the Great Dividing Range mountain system extending east-west through the centre of Victoria. Average temperatures are less than 9 °C (48 °F) in winter and below 0 °C (32 °F) in the highest parts of the ranges. The state’s lowest minimum temperature of −11.7 °C (10.9 °F) was recorded at Omeo on 13 June 1965, and again at Falls Creek on 3 July 1970.
Victoria is the wettest Australian state after Tasmania. Rainfall in Victoria increases from north to south, with higher averages in areas of high altitude. Median annual rainfall exceeds 1,800 mm (71 in) in some parts of the north-east but is less than 250 mm (10 in) in the Mallee.
Rain is heaviest in the Otway Ranges and Gippsland in southern Victoria and in the mountainous north-east. Snow generally falls only in the mountains and hills in the centre of the state. Rain falls most frequently in winter, but summer precipitation is heavier. Rainfall is most reliable in Gippsland and the Western District, making them both leading farming areas. Victoria’s highest recorded daily rainfall was 375 millimetres (14.8 in) at Tanybryn in the Otway Ranges on 22 March 1983.
|City||January Max. Temp||January Min. Temp||July Max. Temp||July Min. Temp||No. Clear days||Annual Rainfall|
|Melbourne||26 °C (79 °F)||14 °C (57 °F)||14 °C (57 °F)||6 °C (43 °F)||49||648 mm (26 in)|
|Ballarat||25 °C (77 °F)||11 °C (52 °F)||10 °C (50 °F)||3 °C (37 °F)||55||690 mm (27 in)|
|Bendigo||30 °C (86 °F)||14 °C (57 °F)||12 °C (54 °F)||3 °C (37 °F)||110||514 mm (20 in)|
|Mildura||32 °C (90 °F)||17 °C (63 °F)||15 °C (59 °F)||4 °C (39 °F)||132||291 mm (11 in)|
|Shepparton||32 °C (90 °F)||15 °C (59 °F)||13 °C (55 °F)||3 °C (37 °F)||n/a||452 mm (18 in)|
|Bairnsdale||26 °C (79 °F)||13 °C (55 °F)||15 °C (59 °F)||4 °C (39 °F)||60||650 mm (26 in)|
|Warnambool||22 °C (72 °F)||13 °C (55 °F)||13 °C (55 °F)||6 °C (43 °F)||53||743 mm (29 in)|
|Temperature and precipitation for Victoria.
Source: Bureau of Meteorology, Department of Primary Industries, Australian Natural Resources Atlas
Average annual rainfall varies from 300 mm (12 in) at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 mm (55 in) in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, the Southwestern most tip of Australia, but in the months of November to March, although rain still falls, evaporation exceeds rainfall and it is generally very dry. Plants must be adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils. A major reduction in rainfall has been observed, with a greater number of rainfall events in the summer months. The central four-fifths of the state is semi-arid or desert and is lightly inhabited with the only significant activity being mining. Annual rainfall averages about 200 to 250 mm (8 to 10 in), most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer months.
An exception to this is the northern tropical regions. The Kimberley has an extremely hot monsoonal climate with average annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 1,500 mm (20 to 59 in), but there is a very long dry season of 7 months from April to November. Eighty-five percent of the state’s runoff occurs in the Kimberley, but because it occurs in violent floods and because of the insurmountable poverty of the generally shallow soils, the only development has taken place along the Ord River.
Snowfall in the state is rare, and typically only in the Stirling Range near Albany, the Southwestern most point in WA, as it is the only mountain range far enough south and with sufficient elevation. More rarely, snow can fall on the nearby Porongurup Range. Snow outside these areas is a major event; it usually occurs in hilly areas of south-western Australia. The most widespread low-level snow occurred on 26 June 1956 when snow was reported in the Perth Hills, as far north as Wongan Hills and as far east as Salmon Gums. However, even in the Stirling Range, snowfalls rarely exceed 5 cm (2 in) and rarely settle for more than one day.
The highest observed maximum temperature of 50.5 °C (122.9 °F) was recorded at Mardie Station on 19 February 1998. The lowest minimum temperature recorded was −7.2 °C (19.0 °F) at Eyre Bird Observatory on 17 August 2008.
|City||January Max. Temp||January Min. Temp||July Max. Temp||July Min. Temp||No. Clear days||Annual Rainfall|
|Perth||30 °C (86 °F)||18 °C (64 °F)||17 °C (63 °F)||9 °C (48 °F)||131||868 mm (34 in)|
|Albany||23 °C (73 °F)||15 °C (59 °F)||16 °C (61 °F)||8 °C (46 °F)||45||929 mm (37 in)|
|Kalgoorlie||34 °C (93 °F)||18 °C (64 °F)||17 °C (63 °F)||5 °C (41 °F)||151||266 mm (10 in)|
|Geraldton||32 °C (90 °F)||18 °C (64 °F)||19 °C (66 °F)||9 °C (48 °F)||164||441 mm (17 in)|
|Karratha||36 °C (97 °F)||27 °C (81 °F)||26 °C (79 °F)||14 °C (57 °F)||158||297 mm (12 in)|
|Broome||33 °C (91 °F)||26 °C (79 °F)||29 °C (84 °F)||14 °C (57 °F)||182||613 mm (24 in)|
More than 80% of the continent has an annual rainfall of less than 600 mm (24 in); only Antarctica receives less rainfall than Australia. A place inland near Lake Eyre (in South Australia) would only receive 81 mm (3 in) of rain annually. Another place, Troudaninna Bore (, altitude : 46 m) in South Australia, from 1893 to 1936, received, in average, 104.9 mm (4.13 inches) of precipitation. From one extreme to another, parts of the far North Queensland coast annually average over 4,000 mm (157 in), with the Australian annual record being 12,461 mm (491 in), set at the summit of Mount Bellenden Ker in 2000. There are four main factors that contribute to the dryness of the Australian landmass:
The average annual rainfall in the Australian desert is low, ranging from 81 to 250 mm (3 to 10 in) per year. Thunderstorms are relatively common in the region, with an average of 15 – 20 thunderstorms per annum. Summer daytime temperatures range from 32 to 40 °C (90 to 104 °F). In winter, this falls to 18 to 23 °C (64 to 73 °F).
The southern parts of Australia get the usual westerly winds and rain-bearing cold fronts that come when the high pressure systems move towards northern Australia during winter. Cold snaps may bring frosts inland, though temperatures near the coast are mild or near mild all year round. Summers in southern Australia are generally dry and hot with coastal sea breezes. During a lengthy dry spell, hot and dry winds from the interior can cause bushfires in some southern and eastern states, though most commonly Victoria and New South Wales.
The tropical areas of northern Australia have a wet summer because of the monsoon. During “the wet”, typically November to April, humid north-westerly winds bring showers and thunderstorms. Occasionally, tropical cyclones can bring heavy rainfall to tropical coastal regions, which is also likely to reach further inland. After the monsoonal season, the dry season comes (“winter”), which brings mostly clear skies and milder conditions.
Rainfall records tend to be concentrated along the east coast of Australia, particularly in tropical north Queensland. The highest 24‑hour rainfall on record in Australia was 907.0 millimetres (35.7 in) in Crohamhurst on 3 February 1893. The highest monthly rainfall on record was 5,387.0 millimetres (212.1 in) recorded at Mount Bellenden Ker, Queensland in January 1979. The highest annual rainfall was 12,461.0 millimetres (490.6 in) recorded also at Mount Bellenden Ker in the year 2000. Additionally, the location which receives the highest average annual rainfall in Australia is Babinda in Queensland with an annual average of 4,279.4 millimetres (168.5 in).
Low rate of evaporation from this very cool body of water result in little evaporation occurring. Hence, rain clouds are sparsely formed and very rarely do they form long enough for a continuous period of rain to be recorded. Australia’s arid/semi-arid zone extends to this region. The absence of any significant mountain range or area of substantial height above sea level, results in very little rainfall caused by orographic uplift. In the east the Great Dividing Range limits rain moving into inland Australia.
Australia has a compact shape, and no significant bodies of water penetrate very far inland. This is important inasmuch as moist winds are prevented from penetrating inland, so keeping rainfall low.
Snow at sea level is occasionally recorded on mainland Australia, but is more frequent in Tasmania where snowfalls at sea level can occur during the winter months. Snow has been recorded across most of Tasmania, though it is rare on the northern coast at sea level. Snow is rare in the southernmost capitals like Melbourne and Hobart, falling less than once every five years, and in the other capitals it is unknown (however snow has fallen in the hill suburbs of Perth and Adelaide). However, there are extensive, well-developed ski fields in the Great Dividing Range, a few hours’ drive from Melbourne and Sydney. Light snow generally falls every winter in Canberra, however, and other cities that may receive regular seasonal snowfalls include Orange, Oberon, Lithgow and Katoomba in New South Wales.
The occasional cold snap, caused by cold air drifting north from Antarctica, can cause significant snowfall in rural areas, as well as major cities such as Hobart, Melbourne’s outer mountain suburbs and Canberra. Such occasions are rare, but have occurred in 1958, 1965, 1986, 2005 and 2015, the 1965 event causing snow to fall as far north as Eungella, near Mackay in tropical Queensland. Extreme snow events have also produced snow as far north-west as Longreach in Queensland and in the ranges near Alice Springs, and also in lowland towns such as Dubbo and Wagga Wagga in New South Wales. The frequency and intensity of such events has been decreasing significantly over the past 40 years and the most northerly occurrence of snow in this time frame has been the Bunya Mountains in southern Queensland.
Temperatures in Australia have followed an increasing trend between the years of 1910 to 2004 by approximately 0.7 °C. Overnight minimum temperatures have warmed more rapidly than daytime maximum temperatures. The observed warming has hastened in recent years. The late-20th century warming has been largely attributed to the increased greenhouse effect. Temperature differences between winter and summer are minor in the tropical region of Australia. However, they are greatest in the southern inland, with seasonal differences along the coast being moderated by the ocean’s proximity. In July, a more common latitudinal distribution of average maximums is apparent, ranging from 30 °C near the north coast to below 3 °C in the mountainous areas of the south-east.
Average minimum temperatures in all seasons are highest in northern Australia and near the coastal areas, and are lowest in the elevated areas of the south-east. The highest average January minimum temperatures (near 27 °C) are found near the north-west coast, while in winter they exceed 20 °C at some coastal locations in northern Australia and on the Torres Strait and Tiwi Islands. In the mountains of New South Wales, it is not unusual to have average low minimum temperatures dipping below 5 °C in January and -5 °C in July. Comparatively, most inland (non-mountainous) areas south of the tropics have average July minimum between 0° and 6 °C.
In the desert, the dry air and clear skies give rather large ranges in temperature between day and night. Ranges of 15 °C being typical and 20 °C not quite unusual. Light nighttime frosts in winter occur over much of the southern half of the arid zone, where mean July minimum temperatures are mostly in the 3-6 °C range. Moving north, frosts become increasingly rare, with mean July minimum being around 10 °C on the northern boundary.
The highest maximums in Australia are recorded in two regions, the Pilbara and Gascoyne regions of north-western Western Australia and the area extending from south-western Queensland across South Australia into south-eastern Western Australia. Many locations in this region have recorded temperatures exceeding 48 °C. In January, average maximum temperatures exceed 35 °C over a large area of the interior and exceed 40 °C over areas in the north-west. The highest summer maximums in the Pilbara and Gascoyne average at around 41 °C (in some years daily maximums consecutively exceed 40 °C for several weeks at a time).
Marble Bar achieved 160 consecutive days above 37.8 °C (100° Fahrenheit) in 1923-24. Nyang had an average maximum of 44.8 °C for the months of February 1998 and January 2005, an Australian record. At the other extreme, average January maximums are near 15 °C on the highest peaks of the south-east ranges and near 20 °C in much of Tasmania. In most of the desert region during summer, cool days are rare and usually associated with major rain events – a rather exceptional example occurred in February 1949, when many areas failed to reach 20 °C on one or more days, and the maximum at Boulia, western Queensland was at 14.4 °C, which was 23 °C below normal.
Many other locations in Australia, except those above 500 metres, have extreme maximums between 43° and 48 °C. Most Tasmanian sites away from the north coast have had extreme maximums between 35° and 40 °C. The lowest extreme maximums are found along the north coast of Tasmania (e.g. 29.5 °C at Low Head) and at high elevations (27.0 °C at Thredbo). While extreme high temperatures are more common inland than they are near the coast, notable extreme maximum have been observed near the coast; 50.5 °C at Mardie, 49.1 °C at Roebourne, Western Australia, 49.4 °C at Whyalla and 47.9 °C at Ceduna, South Australia.
At lower elevations, most inland places south of the tropics have extreme minimum between -3 °C and -7 °C, and these low temperatures have also occurred in locations within a few kilometres of southern and eastern coasts, such as Sale, Victoria (-5.6 °C), Bega, New South Wales (-8.1 °C), Grove, Tasmania (-7.5 °C) and Taree, New South Wales (-5.0 °C). Many locations in this region have recorded -10 °C or lower, including Gudgenby in the Australian Capital Territory (-14.6 °C) and Woolbrook, New South Wales (-14.5 °C). In the desert, the lowest extreme minimum occur at high elevations, especially around Alice Springs, where the temperature has fallen as low as -7.5 °C.
In the tropics, extreme minimum near or below 0 °C have occurred at many places distant from the coast, as far north as Herberton, Queensland (-5.0 °C). Some locations near tropical coasts, such as Mackay (-0.8 °C), Townsville (0.1 °C) and Kalumburu, Western Australia (0.3 °C) have also recorded temperatures near 0 °C. In contrast, some coastal locations, such as Darwin, have never fallen below 10 °C, and Thursday Island, in the Torres Strait, has an extreme minimum of 16.1 °C. The lowest maximum temperature on record in Australia was −6.9 °C (19.6 °F), recorded on 9 July 1978 at Thredbo Ski Resort in New South Wales. The highest minimum temperature on record was 35.5 °C (95.9 °F), recorded on 24 January 1982 in Arkaroola, South Australia and again on 21 January 2003 in Wittenoom, Western Australia.
A list of extremes can be found in the tables below:
|Absolute temperature ranges|
|Month||Maximum temperatures||Minimum temperatures|
|°C||°F||location and date||°C||°F||location and date|
|January||50.7||123.3||Oodnadatta, South Australia (2 January 1960)||−7.7||18.1||Thredbo Ski Resort, New South Wales (24 January 2000)|
|February||50.5||122.9||Mardie, Western Australia (19 February 1998)||−7.0||19.4||Perisher Ski Resort, New South Wales (17 February 1979)|
|March||47.8||118.0||Carnarvon, Western Australia (6 March 2007)/Roebourne, Western Australia (4 March 1998)||−7.2||19.0||Kiandra, New South Wales (25 March 1964)/Bullocks Flat, New South Wales (31 March 1988)|
|April||45.0||113.0||Port Hedland, Western Australia (1 April 1948)/Marble Bar, Western Australia (2 April 1928)||−13.0||8.6||Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (29 April 2009)|
|May||40.6||105.1||Bidyadanga, Western Australia (6 May 1990)||−13.4||7.9||Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (24 May 2008)|
|June||37.8||100.0||Wyndham, Western Australia (2 June 1962)||−23.0||−9.4||Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (29 June 1994)|
|July||37.6||99.7||Wyndham, Western Australia (19 July 1996)||−19.6||−3.3||Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (20 July 2010)|
|August||40.0||104.0||Kalumburu, Western Australia (27 August 1970)||−20.6||−5.1||Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (14 August 1968)|
|September||43.1||109.6||Roebuck Bay, Western Australia (27 September 2003)||−16.7||1.9||Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (20 September 1967)|
|November||46.9||116.4||Port Hedland, Western Australia (22 November 2002)||−12.0||10.4||Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (29 November 2006)|
|November||48.7||119.7||Birdsville, Queensland (17 November 1990)||−9.4||15.1||Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (26 November 1968)|
|December||49.5||121.1||Birdsville, Queensland (24 December 1972)||−9.0||15.8||Thredbo Ski Resort, New South Wales (13 December 1976)|
Climatic factors contribute to Australia’s high incidence of bushfires, particularly during the summer months. Low relative humidity, wind and lack of rain can cause a small fire, either man-made or caused naturally by lightning strikes, to spread rapidly over large distances. Low humidity, the heat of the sun and lack of water cause vegetation to dry out becoming a perfect fuel for the fire. High winds fan the flames, increasing their intensity and the speed and distance at which they can travel.
Many of the worst bushfires in eastern Australia, such as the 1983 Ash Wednesday fires, accompany El Niño-Southern Oscillation events which tend to cause a warm, dry and windy climate. The worst bushfires in Australian history occurred on Black Saturday in February 2009. The human death toll of the disaster was 173, and over 2000 homes were lost.
Though Australia is generally dry and arid, a large portion of the country is in the tropics. Rainfall in these areas is extremely heavy. With some are areas recording world record breaking rain, such as the mountains which lie to the south west of Cairns. Through La Niñayears the eastern seaboard of Australia records above average rainfall usually creating damaging floods.
The 2010–2011 La Nina system has broken many rainfall records in Australia, particularly in the states of Queensland and New South Wales, which have seen extensive flooding which has caused major damage to infrastructure and crops. The central east area of Queensland, an area the size of Germany and France combined, was under water in 2010–2011. The estimated damage bill could reach into the billions.
Some places that see heavy monthly (or yearly) rainfall include: Darwin, Cairns, Townsville, Rockhampton, Innisfail, Strahan, Tasmania, Queenstown, Thursday Island and Mount Read (Tasmania).
According to climate scientists, climate change is predicted by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) to have significant effects on the climate of and extreme weather events in Australia, increasing temperatures and the likelihood of heat waves. According to the Bureau of Meteorology, Australia’s annual mean temperature for 2009 was 0.90 °C (1.62 °F) above the 1961-90 average, making it the nation’s second warmest year since high-quality records began in 1910. Summer in both 2013 and 2014 continued this trend of record-breaking heat–2014 was Australia’s third hottest year on record and 2013 broke national records.
In January 2013, the Bureau of Meteorology altered its weather forecasting chart’s temperature scale to include a range, coloured purple, between 52° and 54 °C.
Coastal communities face risks from sea level rise, albeit over a long period of time based on current estimates of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. The Gold Coast, being built on sand and with many canal developments, could be considered particularly at risk. Suburbs of Sydney like Drummoyne and Concord on rivers like the Parramatta River face risks of inundation of low-lying areas such as parks (such as Timbrell Park and Majors Bay Reserve) reclaimed from mudflats at the heads of bays, or massive expenses in rebuilding seawalls to higher levels.
Currently, there are several environmental movements and campaigners advocating for action on climate change. One such campaign is “The Big Switch”, Australia’s largest community climate change campaign.
New projections for Australia’s changing climate includes:
Historical climatic records are now sufficiently reliable to profile climate variability taking into account expectations for regions. State Governments are responsible for declaring a region drought affected and the declaration will take into account factors other than rainfall.
Australia is affected by tropical cyclones which primarily occur between December and April but have developed in November and May, as well. Cyclones over mainland Australia occur on average five to six times each year.The region between Broome and Exmouth are most prone to cyclones. Tropical cyclones are known to bring destructive winds, heavy rain with flooding creating storm surges along the coast, causing inundation in low-lying areas. The strongest Australian region cyclone was Cyclone Monica in 2006 which had wind gusts in excess of 350 km/h (220 mph). Cyclones can also move inland, decaying to a rain depression, which dump heavy rain in these areas and causing flooding.
The worst cyclones of Australia have caused billions of dollars of damage and many deaths. Cyclone Tracy crossed directly over Darwin in 1974, 71 people were killed. Adjusted for inflation it was Australia’s most damaging cyclone. Cyclone Mahina in 1899 brought a storm surge to Far North Queensland reaching 13 m (43 ft) high, causing 400 deaths and making it the worst natural disaster to befall Australia. Cyclone Larry struck North Queensland and passed over Innisfail in 2006 causing damages estimated at A$1.5 billion but no lives were lost. Cyclone Yasi caused severe flooding and had a total estimated cost of A$3.5 billion making it the second most costliest cyclone to strike Australia.
Blizzards are not common in mainland Australia, but occur frequently in the Snowy Mountains in New South Wales and Victoria. When blizzards do occur, they can affect the Tasmanian Highlands and, particularly, Mount Wellington, which towers over the Tasmanian capital Hobart. Blizzards do not affect any major towns or cities, because there are no populated areas located in the mountains except for the ski resort towns of New South Wales and Victoria.
A dust storm or sandstorm, a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions, arises when a gust front passes or when the wind force exceeds the threshold value where loose sand and dust are removed from the dry surface. Particles are transported by saltation and suspension, causing soil erosion from one place and deposition in another.
The term sandstorm is used most often in the context of desert sandstorms, especially in the Sahara, when, in addition to fine particles obscuring visibility, a considerable amount of larger sand particles moves closer to the surface. The term dust storm is more likely to be used when finer particles are blown long distances, especially when the dust storm affects urban areas.
DigiMarCon is the Largest Digital Marketing, Media and Advertising Conference & Exhibition series in the world, with annual events held in all continents (North America, Latin America, Europe, UK, Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa) in 13 countries (United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Ireland, Netherlands, Spain, Brazil, Singapore, India, United Arab Emirates and South Africa), across 33 cities (New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Toronto, Vancouver, Montreal, Houston, Dallas, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, Washington DC, New Orleans, Atlanta, Detroit, Miami, Denver, San Diego, Phoenix, Las Vegas, Honolulu, London, Dublin, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Johannesburg, Cape Town, Dubai, Sydney, Auckland, Singapore and Sao Paulo). All DigiMarCon Events can be attended in-person or online. Wherever you are located there is a regional DigiMarCon event nearby you can attend.
DigiMarCon Conferences are held in top luxury 5-star event venues across the world such as; Royal Caribbean Cruise Ships, Olympic Stadiums, Marina Bay Sands Expo & Convention Centre and Wynn, JW Marriott, Marriott Marquis, Hyatt Regency, InterContinental, The Westin, Renaissance, Hilton, Conrad, W, Sheraton, Loews and Sofitel Hotel properties. Discount hotel room rates at each venue hotel means no hassle getting to and from the venue each day.
Building relationships matter! At DigiMarCon Conferences we have more networking breaks on our program than others. On average there are 8 Networking breaks at each event giving delegates ample opportunities in a relaxed atmosphere to meet others over the 2-days at the event; from 1-hour round table networking luncheons to 3-hour dinner receptions. These networking breaks are set in picturesque locations to facilitate memorable experiences while fostering new relationships. Such experiences include enjoying cocktails and the Sunset over the Pacific Ocean on a private Ocean Terrace in Santa Monica, to being on the Sydney Olympic Stadium playing arena at night enjoying cocktails under the lights, to dining at the 360 Revolving Restaurant at the top of the CN Tower in Toronto for a Dinner Reception, enjoying cocktails on a private promenade overlooking Times Square in New York City, or having fun at the Dazzles Night Club onboard the Royal Caribbean Oasis of the Seas for a Farewell Party, etc.
DigiMarCon Keynotes, Panels and Master Classes are facilitated by the foremost thought leaders in the industry, from celebrity social media influencers to CMO’s from the largest Fortune 500 company brands that are disrupting the digital marketing, media and advertising industry, such as Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Amazon, Oracle, Adobe, eBay, Netflix and more. All presentations are pitch-free, and include actionable takeaways, case studies, strategies and tactics, ready to be applied when back in the office.
At DigiMarCon Conferences you are never ‘left in the dark’…. literally, in a large room far away from the stage and speakers, crushed in tight theater seating, without even a table, while sitting in the dark. At DigiMarCon all delegates have premium meeting space in luxurious ballroom well-lit spaces, with comfortable seating with table enabling delegates to use their laptop to take notes with ample charging facilities onsite in a comfortable space to learn and thrive. All tables are situated close with direct view of the stage.
DigiMarCon Conferences are affordable to attend, from single-day event passes up to two-day VIP options at a fraction of the cost of other industry events. We offer significant discounts for early bird registrations. Additionally, on top of time-limited discount pass rates, because budgets are tight, we want to make sure all groups have a chance to attend DigiMarCon. For government employees, students, academic, startups, non-profit organizations and teams, we offer generous discounts off the prevailing registration price.
Attend DigiMarCon and you become part of the show! DigiMarCon Conferences tap into the talent of the room, drawing from the knowledge and experience of the professionals in the audience. All DigiMarCon events include regular interactive question and answer sessions with speakers and the audience ideal for collaboration, audience polls, along with ice-breaker and group exercises, steered by charismatic Emcees.
DigiMarCon Conferences put you right up and close with the speakers giving you the opportunity to meet these social media influencers which you follow in person. Speakers are never hidden in private speaker rooms away from the audience, they are in the auditorium sitting right beside you and participating.
Attending a conference is a well-researched decision. There are many factors to consider such as location, time, venue, cost, speakers, content, etc. At DigiMarCon our results-obsessed Customer Service team are at your service before, during and after the event to help with your needs. It’s at the core of what we do — it drives our business. Offsite, we are ready to assist you via phone, ticket or chat. Onsite at our Conferences, friendly DigiMarCon staff serve as your hosts. They welcome your input and are happy to assist you.
At all DigiMarCon Conferences is the co-located exclusive event TECHSPO Technology Expo, which showcases the new generation of technology and innovation, including; AdTech, MarTech, Internet, Mobile and SaaS technologies. Be inspired, amazed and educated on how these evolving technologies will impact your business for the better. Unlimited Access to TECHSPO Technology Expo is included with all DigiMarCon passes.
DigiMarCon All Access & VIP Passes include a 12-month on demand access to hundreds of hours of DigiMarCon speaker keynotes, panels and master class presentations from recent DigiMarCon Conferences, including videos, slide decks and key takeaways, available on demand so you can watch what you want, when you want.
Attendees of DigiMarcon Conferences gain membership to an exclusive global Digital Marketing, Media and Advertising Community of over 500,000 worldwide subscribers to our award-winning digital marketing blog and over 100,000 members to the International Association of Digital Marketing Professionals (visit https://iadmp.org). This global community comprises of innovators, senior marketers and branders, entrepreneurs, digital executives and professionals, web & mobile strategists, designers and web project managers, business leaders, business developers, agency executives and their teams and anyone else who operates in the digital community who leverage digital, mobile, and social media marketing. We provide updates to the latest whitepapers and industry reports to keep you updated on trends, innovation and best practice digital marketing.
The events industry has forever changed in a world affected by COVID-19. The health and safety of our guests, staff and community is our highest priority and paramount. The team at DigiMarCon is dedicated to ensuring a great experience at our in-person events, and that includes providing a safe, clean and hygienic environment for our delegates. Some of the key areas we have implemented safe and hygienic measures include;
DigiMarCon has always been industry leaders of the Hybrid Event experience for years (a hybrid event combines a "live" in-person event with a "virtual" online component), no one needs to miss out on attending our events. Each DigiMarCon Conference can be attended in-person (with a Main Conference, All Access or VIP Pass) or online (with a Virtual Pass) giving attendees a choice for the experience they want to have. Attending virtually by viewing a Live Stream or On Demand enables participation by people who might be unable to attend physically due to travel or time zone constraints or through a wish to reduce the carbon footprint of the event. If you would like to meet the speakers, network with fellow marketing professionals at refreshment breaks, luncheons and evening receptions, check out the latest Internet, Mobile, AdTech, MarTech and SaaS technologies providers exhibiting then it is highly recommended to attend DigiMarCon in-person. As the largest Digital Marketing, Media and Advertising Conference series with events in 33 international cities worldwide, across 13 countries, there is bound to be a DigiMarCon Event near you to attend in-person if you can.
DigiMarCon Conference Series is the annual gathering of the most powerful brands and senior agency executives in your region. The Sharpest Minds And The Most Influential Decision Makers - Together for Two Days.
Who Attends Our Conferences
Brands • Agencies • Solution & Service Providers • Media Owners • Publishers • Entrepreneurs • Start-Ups • Investors • Government • Corporates • Institutes of Higher Learning
I. INFORMATION COLLECTED BY SEARCH EXPERIENCES OR ON SEARCH EXPERIENCES BEHALF
Personally identifiable information (Personal Information) is information that can be used to identify or contact you. We collect the Personal Information that you provide to us in two general and distinct ways: (1) when you choose to purchase various services or products offered by DigiMarCon and/or its affiliated business partners, or (2) when you choose to participate in surveys or send e-mails to DigiMarCon. This Site is not intended for use by persons under eighteen (18) years of age. DigiMarCon does not knowingly collect Personal Information from or about children under the age of eighteen (18).
We collect anonymous, non-confidential, and non-personal information when you use our site, send us e-mails, or respond to special promotions or newsletters that we may send to you from time to time. For example, cookies are small computer files that we transfer to your computer's hard drive that allow us to know how often someone visits a site and the activities they conduct while on that site (such as the chat rooms you visited, whether you submitted orders for services or products, etc.). Every computer is assigned a different cookie by DigiMarCon. The information collected by cookies helps us dynamically generate advertising and content on web pages or in e-mails specifically designed for you and also allows us to statistically monitor how many people are using our site and selected affiliated business partners sites, or are opening our e-mails. We may use cookie information to target certain advertisements to your browser or to determine the popularity of certain content or advertisements. It may be possible to link non-personal cookie information to Personal Information collected. You may be able to turn off cookies in your browser, but this may hinder our ability to provide you with certain services or your ability to enjoy certain features of the Site.
In limited circumstances we also may use "web beacons" to collect anonymous, non-personal information about your use of our Web site and the sites of selected affiliated partners, and your use of e-mails, special promotions or newsletters we may send to you from time to time. Web beacons are tiny graphic image files imbedded in a web page or e-mail that provide a presence on the web page or e-mail and send back to its home server information from the Users' browser. The information collected by web beacons allows us to statistically monitor how many people are using our site and selected affiliated business partners sites, or are opening our e-mails, and for what purposes. It may be possible to link non-personal web beacon information to Personal Information collected.
As noted in the discussions of cookies and web beacons (see above), we collect anonymous, non-personal information about your use of e-mails and newsletters that we may send to you from time to time. In some cases, when you click on a link or an advertisement in an e-mail or newsletter, your browser may be momentarily directed to the site of a third party which, acting on DigiMarCon behalf (see Disclosure to Web site Service and Content Contractors, below), notes or "counts" your response to the e-mail or newsletter before re-directing your browser to its proper destination. This re-direction process will not be apparent to you.
II. DISCLOSURE OF YOUR INFORMATION
Except as set forth in this Section II, or as specifically agreed to by you, DigiMarCon will employ best efforts to not use or disclose any Personal Information it gathers from you unless reasonably required in order to answer your questions, provide products and/or services you may request or purchase from DigiMarCon (such as, information we need to share with our credit card internet gateway), or to comply with governmental or internal record-keeping requirements as reasonably required. We may release Personal Information to third parties: (1) to comply with valid legal requirements such as a law, regulation, search warrant, subpoena or court order; or (2) in special cases, such as a financial threat to you or others. In the event that we are legally compelled to disclose your Personal Information to a third party, we will notify you unless doing so would violate the law or court order.
DigiMarCon operations and maintenance contractors may sometimes have limited access to your Personal Information in the course of providing products or services to DigiMarCon. These contractors include vendors and suppliers that provide us with technology, services, and/or content related to operation and maintenance of our Web site. These contractors also may have access to your e-mail address to send newsletters or special promotions to you on our behalf or to send e-mails to you for purposes such as conducting market research on our behalf. Access to your Personal Information by these contractors is limited to the information reasonably necessary in order for the contractor to perform its limited function for DigiMarCon.
DigiMarCon may provide to third parties non-personal information about you that does not allow you to be identified or contacted and that is combined with the non-personal information of other users ("Aggregate Information"). For example, we might inform third parties regarding the number of users of our site and the activities they conduct while on our site. We might also inform a company that performs services or that provides products and/or services to DigiMarCon (that may or may not be a DigiMarCon business partner or an advertiser on our site) that "50% of our users live in the USA" or that "85% of our users have purchased products and/or services which can be downloaded from DigiMarCon Web site." Depending on the circumstances, we may or may not charge third parties for this Aggregate Information. We may not limit the third parties' use of the Aggregate Information.
DigiMarCon wants your Personal Information to remain as secure and accurate as possible. We implement appropriate measures and processes to protect your Personal Information and maintain its quality, such as encryption. Although we make reasonable efforts to protect your Personal Information from loss, misuse, or alteration by third parties, you should be aware that there is always some risk involved in transmitting information over the Internet. There is also some risk that thieves could find a way to thwart our security systems.
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You can always contact us in order to (1) delete your Personal Information from our systems, (2) update the Personal Information that you have provided to us, and (3) change your preferences with respect to marketing contacts or other activities, by e-mailing us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Such changes will not have any effect on other information that DigiMarCon maintains. If you have a complaint or problem you may e-mail us at email@example.com and the customer service department will forward your complaint to the appropriate internal DigiMarCon department for a response or resolution. We try to answer every e-mail in a timely manner but are not always able to do so.
You should be aware that it may not be technologically possible to remove each and every record of the information you have provided to DigiMarCon from our servers. The need to back-up our systems to protect information from inadvertent loss means that a copy of your Personal Information may exist in a non-erasable form that may be difficult or impossible for us to locate. Nevertheless, upon receiving your request, we will endeavor to delete all Personal Information stored in the databases we actively use for research and daily business activities, as well as other readily searchable media.
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